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EC number: 202-500-6
CAS number: 96-33-3
In a two-generation
study according to OECD TG 416 groups of 27 male and female Crl:CD(SD)
rats were whole-body exposed to methyl acrylate vapours at target
concentrations of 0, 5, 25, and 75 ppm for six hours/day, seven
days/week, resulting in actual average concentrations of 0, 5.3 ± 0.2,
25.7 ± 0.3, and 75.4 ± 0.6 ppm, respectively (corresponding to approx.
0, 0.019, 0.092, and 0.269 mg/L).Rats
were exposed daily for approximately ten weeks prior to breeding, and
continuing through breeding, gestation and lactation for two
generations. Maternal rats were not exposed after GD 20 through LD 4 in
order to allow for parturition and initiation of lactation. Exposure of
maternal rats continued from LD 5 – LD 28. In-life parameters included
clinical observations, feed consumption, body weights, estrous
cyclicity, reproductive performance, pup survival, pup body weights, and
puberty onset. In addition, post-mortem evaluations included gross
pathology, histopathology, organ weights, oocyte quantitation and sperm
count, motility and morphology in adults, and gross
pathology and organ weights in weanlings (BAMM 2009).
effects in parental rats exposed to 75 ppm included decreased body
weight and feed consumption in males and females throughout most of the
two generation study. There were no effects on body weight or feed
consumption at 25 or 5 ppm. Treatment-related, adverse histopathologic
effects were present in the nasal tissues of P1 and P2 males and females
exposed to 25 or 75 ppm. The incidence and severity of the nasal effects
were concentration dependent. Degeneration with regeneration of the
olfactory epithelium (very slight to moderate) occurred in all P1 and P2
males and females exposed to 75 ppm. Very slight olfactory epithelial
degeneration, without accompanying regenerative hyperplasia, was noted
in some of the P1 and P2 females and P2 males exposed to 25 ppm. There
were several histopathologic effects that accompanied the degeneration
of the olfactory epithelium. Very slight or slight degeneration of the
olfactory nerve was present in most of the P1 and P2 males and females
exposed to 75 ppm, and one P1 male exposed to 25 ppm. Very slight or
slight chronic-active inflammation was present in 16/27 P1 males, 20/27
P1 females, 14/27 P2 males, and 8/27 P2 females exposed to 75 ppm, and
in one or two males and females from both generations exposed to 25 ppm.
Very slight necrosis of individual olfactory epithelial cells was
present in most of the P1 and P2 males and females exposed to 75 ppm,
and a few P1 and P2 animals (one to four per sex) exposed to 25 ppm.
Very slight mineralization of the olfactory epithelium was present in
one or two P1 and P2 animals exposed to 25 ppm, and in 6/27 P1 males,
4/27 P1 females, 16/27 P2 males and 14/27 P2 females exposed to 75 ppm.
Other nasal effects consisted of an increase in the incidence of very
slight or slight hyperplasia of the transitional epithelium in P1 and P2
males and females exposed to 25 or 75 ppm, and an increase in the
incidence of very slight or slight hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the
respiratory epithelium in P1 males and females exposed to 25 or 75 ppm,
and in P2 males and females exposed to 75 ppm. There were no
treatment-related histopathologic effects in P1 or P2 animals exposed to
effects were seen in reproductive function or pup survival. However, pup
body weights of the 75 ppm exposure group were decreased on postnatal
day 14-28 in both generations. There were no effects on pup body weight
in rats exposed to 25 or 5 ppm. The effects on pup body weight, as well
as the changes in parental body weight and feed consumption, likely were
secondary changes all stemming from nasal irritation and resultant
In summary, the
no-observed-adverse-effect concentration (NOAEC) for parental systemic
toxicity was determined to be 5 ppm (= ca. 0.018 mg/L) and was based on
histologic changes in the nasal tissues seen at higher concentrations.
The NOAEC for developmental toxicity was 25 ppm (= ca. 0.089 mg/L),
based on decreases in pup body weight at 75 ppm which were secondary to
parental toxicity. The NOAEC for reproductive toxicity was 75 ppm (= ca.
0.268 mg/L), the highest concentration tested.
In addition, data on
reproductive organ toxicity (testes weights as well as information on
gross and microscopic pathology for testes, prostate, ovaries, and
uteri) were derived from a 3-month study by the oral route according to
a test procedure equivalent to OECD TG 408. F344 rats were administered
methyl acrylate via drinking water (0, 1, 5, 20 mg/kg bw/d) for 13 weeks
(Dow 1981). Additionally, data on reproductive organ toxicity from
subchronic and chronic inhalation studies with Sprague-Dawley rats were
taken into account. 10 Sprague Dawley rats per group and sex were
exposed to 23, 124, 242 and 626 ppm (corresponding to approx. 0.082,
0.44, 0.86 and 2.24 mg/L) for 12 weeks, 5 day a week, 6 hours per day
(BASF AG 1978 & 1980). In a two-year chronic study (equivalent to OECD
TG 453), groups of rats were exposed to 15, 45, or 135 ppm
(corresponding to approx. 0.058, 0.173, 0.519 mg/L) (BASF AG 1985,
Reininghaus et al. 1991). No substance-related effects were found in
seminal vesicles prostate, epididymis, uterus, testes, or ovary upon
microscopic examinations in any of these studies.
No indications of a developmental toxic / teratogenic effect were seen in animal studies.
In a study where the
developmental toxicity of seven acrylates was investigated, groups of 25
pregnant rats were exposed to 0, 25, 50 or 100 ppm methyl acrylate
(corresponding to approx. 0.089, 0.179, 0.358 mg/L) for 6 hrs/day from
days 6 through 20 of gestation. Marked maternal toxicity was
demonstrated at 50 and 100 ppm as pronounced decreases in maternal body
weight gain and food consumption over the entire exposure period. There
were no treatment related increases in embryo/fetal mortality and no
fetal malformations were observed in any of the treatment groups. Fetal
toxicity, indicated by significantly reduced fetal body weight, was
observed after exposure to 100 ppm methyl acrylate in the presence of
overt signs of maternal toxicity (Saillenfait 1999). The NOAEC for
maternal toxicity was 25 ppm (0.089 mg/L), the NOAEC for developmental
effects (fetotoxicity) was 50 ppm (0.179 mg/L), and the NOAEC for
developmental effects (teratogenicity) was the highest concentration
tested of 100 ppm (0.357 mg/L).
prenatal developmental toxicity study in rabbits as second species was
conducted according to OECD TG 414 for the Acrylate Task Force (BAMM
2009). 25 inseminated female Himalayan rabbits per group were whole-body
exposed for 6 hrs/day, 5 days/week over a time period of 23 consecutive
days (gestation days (GD) 6–28) to methyl acrylate vapours at target
concentrations of 0, 5, 15, and 45 ppm. Analytical concentrations of
4.9, 15.7, 44.2 ppm (corresponding to approx. 0.0174, 0.0553, 0.1556
mg/L) were measured. On gestation day 29 the does were sacrificed and
submitted to gross and histopathological examination (nasal cavities,
larynx, trachea, lungs, mediastinal lymph nodes, all gross lesions).
Examinations of ovaries and uterine content of the does included:
determination of the weight of the unopened uterus, of the number of
corpora lutea, of the number and distribution of implantation sites, and
calculations of conception rate and pre- and post-implantation losses.
Fetal examinations were performed on all fetuses per litter (external,
soft tissue, skeletal) except head examinations that were done on half
of the fetuses per litter.
There were no test
substance-related effects on the does concerning food consumption,
gross/net body weight, gestational parameters, uterine, placental and
lung weights, as well as necropsy observations up to and including a
dose of 45 ppm. The test substance caused a severe degeneration and
atrophy of the olfactory epithelium at at least one focal area in the
nasal cavity (distal levels III and/or IV) at the high-dose level (45
ppm). Though being local effects, such massive findings in the
respiratory tract are likely to cause a considerable amount of distress
in the affected maternal animals. Since distress is supposed to
influence maternal homeostasis, this is considered to be a significant
adverse effect on the maternal organism. The NOAEC for maternal toxicity
was 15 ppm (0.0553 mg/L).
revealed no influence of the test compound on sex distribution of the
fetuses and fetal body weights. Methyl Acrylate (MA) had no adverse
effect on prenatal development of offspring at any of the dose levels
tested (5, 15 and 45 ppm). Thus, the NOAEC for developmental effects
(fetotoxicity) and the NOAEC for developmental effects (teratogenicity)
was the highest concentration tested of 45 ppm (0.1556 mg/L).
EU classification according to Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC: no
GHS classification (GHS UN rev.3, 2009): no classification required
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