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EC number: 202-500-6
CAS number: 96-33-3
Methyl acrylate is of moderate toxicity after single ingestion and after short-term skin contact. Methyl acrylate is of pronounced toxicity after short-term inhalation.Oral: LD50 = ca. 768 mg/kg bw (rat, BASF Test)Dermal: LD50: ca. 1250 mg/kg bw (rabbit, occlusive)Inhalation: LC50 = <10.382 mg/L (rat, comparable to OECD TG 403)
Oral exposure route:
In the key study conducted by BASF AG (1958) groups of 5 male rats
were administered doses of 196, 303, 481, 762 and 1210 mg/kg bw and
observed for 7 days for lethality and clinical signs of intoxication.
The LD50 was found to be approx. 768 mg/kg bw. Clinical symptoms were
unspecific: staggering, apathy, labored breathing. At necropsy, lesions
of the gastric mucosa were found. Other acute oral LD50s in rats,
rabbits and mice were described in literature mostly without additional
data and ranged between 277 and 826 mg/kg bw (Smyth & Carpenter 1948,
Tanii 1982, BASF 1960, Treon 1949).
Dermal exposure route:
The dermal LD50 in rabbits was determined as 1250 mg/kg bw. Clinical
signs were not reported (Smyth 1948). In another study (BASF 1958)
rabbits were exposed to a dose of 0.2 mL/kg bw of the test substance
(corresponding to approx. 190 mg/kg bw) on the back under occlusive
conditions for a period of 24 hours. 3/3 animals survived without any
clinical signs of intoxication. Local signs of irritation (slight
erythema) were observed. Since only one dose of 190 mg/kg bw was tested
and that dose did not result in any lethality, this study can at best be
seen as support of the previous mentioned study, but does not add any
further data. Other studies with rats and rabbits are not reliable due
to significant methodological deficiencies and are therefore not
suitable for assessment (Treon 1949, BASF 1958).
Inhalation exposure route:
The key study, conducted according to OECD guideline 403 by BASF
in 2012, indicates that the LC50 is less than 10.362 mg/L. There are
several acute vapour inhalation toxicity studies available involving
Sprague-Dawley rats, NMRI mice, and Chinese hamsters conducted by BASF
AG (1979) according to an internal method equivalent to OECD guideline
403. The studies were performed with fasted and non-fasted animals, but
tests with fasted animals are not taken into consideration for the
hazard assessment, since fasting represents a physiological stress
situation and is not in accordance with the guideline. Nonetheless, the
effect values from the six studies were all in the same range, between
2.5 (hamster, non-fasted) and 6.5 (rat, non-fasted) mg/L.
In the key study, five groups of 10 Sprague-Dawley rats/dose/sex
were exposed (whole-body) to methyl acrylate vapours at nominal
concentrations of 11.8, 11.7, 8.8, 5.8, and 4.4 mg/L for 4 hours. Test
substance concentrations were determined continuously by GC/FID (total
hydrocarbons analyzer, CARLO ERBA). Analytically measured test substance
concentrations were 3.1, 5.7, 6.7, 8.6 and 10.9 mg/L. The LC50 for both
sexes was 6.5 mg/L. Clinical signs included strong eye and nasal
irritation and dyspnoea. Within 1 to 7 days, the surviving animals were
without symptoms. At necropsy, victims showed acute dilatation of heart,
hyperemia and edema of lungs.
Silver and Murphy (1981) investigated the effect of pretreatment
with the carboxylesterase inhibitor TOTP on acute inhalation toxicity.
Without pretreatment the LC50 in rats after an 4 -hour exposure was >
2.7 - < 3.6 mg/L. Pretreatment with TOTP enhanced the acute toxicity of
MA. Older publications by Vernot et al. (1977) and Smyth and Carpenter
(1948) in rats do not add any valuable information. Treon et al. (1949)
determined for a 1-hour vapour exposure in rabbits an LC50 value of 8.7
Taking all the presented data into consideration, Methyl acrylate was
concluded to be of moderate toxicity after single ingestion and after
short-term skin contact. Methyl acrylate is of pronounced toxicity after
EU classification according to Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC: Xn,
GHS classification (GHS UN rev.3, 2009):
- Oral route: Acute Category 4
- Dermal route: Acute Category 4
- Inhalation route (vapour): Acute Category 3
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