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Environmental fate & pathways

Phototransformation in water

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
phototransformation in water
Type of information:
other: BUA Report
Adequacy of study:
other information
Reliability:
other: BUA Report
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: BUA Report
Cross-reference
Reason / purpose:
reference to other study

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
other: BUA Report
Title:
Chlorobenzene, BUA Report 54 (November 1990)
Author:
GDCh, BUA
Year:
1990
Bibliographic source:
S. Hirzel, Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft Stuttgart
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Products and quantum yields for photolysis of chloroaromatics in water
Author:
Dulin D, Drossman H, Mill T
Year:
1986
Bibliographic source:
Environ. Sci. Technol. 20, 72-77
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Photochimie et environnement - V. Photohydrolyse du monochlorobenzène en solution aqueuse diluée
Author:
Tissot A, Boule P, Lemaire J
Year:
1983
Bibliographic source:
Chemosphere 12, 859-872
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Spectral solar photon irridance in Central Europe and the adjacent North Sea
Author:
Frank R, Klöpffer W
Year:
1988
Bibliographic source:
Chemosphere 17, 985-994
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Specific phototransformation of xenobiotic compounds: Chlorobenzenes and halophenols
Author:
Boule P, Guyon C, Tissot A, Lemaire J
Year:
1987
Bibliographic source:
ACS Symp. Ser. 327 (Photochem. Environ. Aquat. Syst.), 10-26
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
The N,N-dimethylaniline-photosensitized dechlorination of chlorobenzenes
Author:
Chesta CA, Cosa JJ, Previtali CM
Year:
1986
Bibliographic source:
Journal of Photochemistry 32, 203-215
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Photoinducedelectron transfer from N,N-dimethylaniline to chlorobenzene: The decomposition rate constant of the radical anion of chlorobenzene
Author:
Chesta CA, Cosa JJ, Previtali CM
Year:
1988
Bibliographic source:
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, A: Chemistry 45, 9-15
Reference Type:
other: Report for the U.S. EPA, Office of Toxic Substances
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
1979
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Improvement of the photostability of selected substances in aqueous medium
Author:
Mansour M, Feicht E, Méallier P
Year:
1989
Bibliographic source:
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 20 - 21, 139-147
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Sunlight photodegradation of haloaromatic polutants catalyzed by semiconductor particulate materials
Author:
Pelizzetti E, Barbeni M, Pramauro E, Serpone N, Borgarello E, Jamieson MA, Hidaka H
Year:
1985
Bibliographic source:
La chimica e l'industria 67, 623-625

Materials and methods

Study type:
other: BUA report
Principles of method if other than guideline:
BUA report
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent

Results and discussion

Details on results:
BUA report

Any other information on results incl. tables

BUA Report (1990):

Direct photolysis of chlorobenzene in water leads to phenol (cited quantum yields of this reaction: 0.37 in polychromatic UV light; 0.1 and 0.19 in monochromatic light).

Owing to the extreme weak light absorption of chlorobenzene in the solar spectrum, computer calculations showed that a direct photolysis of chlorobenzene in water is not to be expected under environmental conditions. The calculated half-life (40° latitude) was 170 years, under Central European climatic conditions even longer half-lives (up to a factor of 8) were expected.

Studies are available on sensitized photolysis (e.g. acteone in water), under environmental conditions a sensitized photolysis is only possible under special conditions (i.e. high concentrations of sensitizing substances in the water). Photolysis in water can also be accelerated by indirect photolytic mechanisms (e.g. influence of humic acids). Studies of photolysis in natural water show an accelerated rate of direct photolysis as compared with experiments in pure water. Quantitative statements with regard to the photolysis of chlorobenzene under environmental conditions cannot be derived with certanity from the studies cited in the report.

The reactivity of chlorobenzene with OH-radicals in water is shown by the relatively rapid photolysis when chlorobenzene is illuminated in the presence of titanium dioxide , a semiconductor which forms OH radicals under illumination in the presence of water. The cited studies in the report do not allow quantitative statements on the indirect photolysis of chlorobenzene in water under environmental conditions. This also applies to studies describing hydrogen peroxide as OH source. Due to very low concentrations of OH radicals in water and a relatively high stability under environmental conditions these investigations were seen more suitable for a specific sewage treatment than for an evaluation of the substance's environmental behaviour.

Applicant's summary and conclusion