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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
according to guideline
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
GLP compliance:
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Methacrylic acid, monoester with propane 1,2diol; HPMA
- Physical state: liquid
- Analytical purity: 99.1%
- Lot/batch No.: 0347403
- Storage condition of test material: room temperature in the dark
Analytical monitoring:
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: 0, 150 mg/L
- Sampling method: At the beginning of exposure and before renewal of test solution (after 24-hour exposure), a portion, 0.75 mL, of the test solution was taken and equal amount of acetonitrile was added to perform WLC analysis.
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: The stock solution was prepared and diluted with dilution water
- Controls: The control test solution contained only dilution water.
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): Not applicable
- Concentration of vehicle in test medium (stock solution and final test solution): Not applicable
- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc): The appearance of all test solutions were colorless and transparent at the preparation.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Daphnia magna
- Strain: Daphnia magna
- Source: National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): female juvenile (less than 24 hours)
- Feeding during test: yes
- Food type: Chlorella vulgaris
- Amount: 0.2 mg-C (organic carbon) / daphnid / day
- Frequency: daily

- Acclimation period: 2 weeks
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): same
- Type and amount of food: Chlorella vulgaris; 0.2 mg-C (organic carbon) / daphnid / day
- Feeding frequency: daily
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): 0% mortality

Test type:
Water media type:
Limit test:
Total exposure duration:
48 h
approx. 236 to 240 mg/L (CaC03)
Test temperature:
20.1 to 20.2 °C
7.8 to 8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
8.6 to 8.8 mg/l
Not Applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0 and 150 mg/L-nominal
0 (non-detectable) and 143 mg/L-geometric mean
Details on test conditions:
- Test vessel: 100 mL glass beaker (covered with teflon sheet)
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 100 mL glass beaker (covered with teflon sheet)
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): Renewal after 24 hours
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): 4
- Biomass loading rate: 1 daphnid / 20 mL

- Source/preparation of dilution water: Reconstituted water (Elendt M4) recommended by OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals No.211 "Daphnia magna Reproduction Test" was used for dilution water.
Vitamins Concentration (ug/L)
Cyanocobalamine(B 12) 1.00
Thiamine hydrochloride 75.0
Biotine 0.750
Trace elements Concentration (ug/L)
FeS04 7H20 995.5
Na2EDTA 2H20 2500
NH4V03 0.575
Na2Se03 2.19
KI 3.25
CoC12 ' 6H20 10.0
ZnC12 13.0
Na2Mo04 2H20 63.0
CuC12 ' 2H20 16.8
NaBr 16.0
SrC12 6H20 152.0
RbCl 71.0
LiCl 306.0
MnC12 . 4H20 360.5
H3BO3 2859.5
Macro nutrients Concentration (mg/L)
K2HP04 0.184
KH2PO4 0.143
NaN03 0.274
Na2SiO3 9H20 10.0
NaHC03 64.8
KCl 5.80
MgS04 7H20 123.3
CaC12 . 2H20 293.8
- Culture medium different from test medium: no

- Adjustment of pH: no
- Photoperiod: 16 hours light / 8 hours dark
- Light intensity: 800 lux or less

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : The daphnids were observed at 24 and 48 hours after the start of exposure, and number of immobile daphnids was recorded. Individuals which were not able to swim within 15 seconds after gentle agitation of the test vessel were considered to be immobile.

- Range finding study: A range-finding test (2 vessels/concentration, 10 daphnids/concentration) was conducted before the definitive test. The result is as follows, and enabled the selection of the concentration range in the definitive test.
Nominal concentrations of the definitive test: control and 150 mg/L
(Since reduction in concentration was expected, selected concentration was higher than ceiling.)
Reference substance (positive control):
Key result
48 h
Dose descriptor:
Effect conc.:
> 143 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
Remarks on result:
other: nominal : > 150 mg/l
Details on results:
- Other adverse effects control: In the control, there was no surface-trapped daphnid at the start of exposure, and the immobility at the end of exposure was 0%.
- Abnormal responses: none
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: The appearance of all test solutions were colorless and transparent at the preparation.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Acute immobilization test of a reference substance (K2Cr2O7, guaranteed reagent) has been conducted every six months since June 1998. 48-hour median effect concentration (EC50) was as follows: average +/- standard deviation = 0.76 +/- 0.16 mg/L
minimum value -maximum value = 0.57 - 1.02 mg/L
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The EC50 value and its 95% confidence limits could not be determined by statistical method because the immobility at the maximum concentration level was less than 50%.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
The 48-hour EC50 in Daphnia magna following OECD guideline 202 is > 143 mg/l measured conc. (150 mg/l nominal conc.)
Executive summary:

A 48-hour toxicity study with methacrylic acid, monoester with propane-1,2-diol to daphnids (Daphnia magna) was conducted under semi-static conditions with 4 replicates of 5 daphnids per test concentration exposed to a nominal limit test concentration of 150 mg/L, plus a water control.

Water samples were measured for analytical verification of test concentrations at the beginning of the exposure and before the renewal of test solution (after 24 hours of exposure) 0 and 48 hours. The resulting geometric mean measured concentrations were non detectable (control) and 143 mg/L.

No daphnid immobility was observed in the control or limit treatment level during the exposure. 

The 48-hour EC50 value was > 143 mg/L.

Description of key information

A short-term toxicity limit test with Daphnia magna exposed to methacrylic acid, monoester with propane-1,2-diol and conducted under GLPs, semi-static conditions, and following standard test guidelines (OECD 202), resulted in 48-hour LC50 value of >150 mg/L corresponding to 143 mg/l mean measured limit concentration tested).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Dose descriptor:
48 h
Effect concentration:
143 mg/L

Additional information

One freshwater aquatic invertebrate study was available for methacrylic acid, monoester with propane-1,2-diol and considered reliable for assessment of this endpoint. The study was conducted with Daphnia magna and found to be of good quality and assigned a Klimisch score of one. The study was conducted as a limit test for 48-hours, under semi-static conditions, following OECD Test Guideline 202, and under GLPs. The study concluded the 48-hour EC50 value was >150 mg/l (nominal) corresponding to 143 mg/L  measured concentration.

No study with marine water invertebrates is available.