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EC number: 701-068-0
CAS number: 2156592-58-2
TOXICITY TO FISH
Most of the tests were conducted in the end of the 1980s. Since
the concentrations were not analytically verified, the reliability of
the results is limited. Hence, most of the tests were considered to be
valid with restrictions.
The available data reveal an increasing toxicity with raising
chain length. The only exception is stearylamine (C18) where only a
summary test report is available which indicates a slight drop of
The lowest, well documented 96h-LC50 reported for fish
is0.11mg/l (nominal) for oleylamine (C18). In this study the
short-term toxicity toPimephales promelaswas examined by Akzo
Nobel (1995b) in the presence and absence of humic acid using a static
water test system according to the OECD Guideline 203 (1984). Fish
were exposed at about 21°C for 96 h in reconstituted freshwater (pH
7.7-8.3, oxygen content 9.0-8.3 mg/l). Since the test material was
insoluble in water, stock dispersions (approx. 0.1 g/l) were freshly
prepared by ultrasonic treatment before each test was started. During
each dosing step, the stock solutions were stirred to prevent any
inhomogeneity of the stock solutions. At the start of the tests, all
test solutions were clear and homogeneous. Five test concentrations in
the nominal concentration range between0.05and0.49mg/l were employed.
As test substance Armeen OD with a purity of 94% was used. During all
tests the test substance content decreased strongly showing a rather
wide spread of the recovery rates. The test protocol explained this by
the following factors:
onto the walls of test vessels or – especially - on other surfaces
(such like the surfaces of the test animals).
with organic materials (humic acid).
acid might act as an emulsifier and hence is likely to influence the
extraction process during the chemical analysis (HPLC).
incomplete water removal during the analytical procedure causes
disturbances of the chemical analysis.
However, based on nominal concentrations a 96 h-LC50 of0.11mg/l
was derived from this study. When taking the results of the chemical
analysis into account by using the mean recovery rate (about 51%) as
the actual test concentration throughout the test, the 96 h-LC50 can
be calculated as0.06mg/l.
From this study it can also be concluded that humic acid clearly
has an effect on bioavailability of oleylamine for fish. . As compared
to the test results without humic acid, the addition of 10 mg/l humic
acid resulted in an approximate 14-fold decrease the calculated LC50
based on nominal concentrations and about 20-fold based on
analytically determined concentrations.
Additional acute fish
tests (see Table 188.8.131.52-1) in natural river water (River Boehme) with
6.3 mg/l and suspended matter of 16.7 mg/L (APAG, 2006a & b) were
carried out. In river water the Primary alkyl amines which are
cationic surfactants at pH relevant in the environment, are either
dissolved in water or sorbed to dissolved and particulate matter. No
sorption to glass ware occurs under these conditions which were
confirmed by measurements. This ensures reliable as well as
reproducible results. Ecotoxicity is mitigated due to sorption but
this kind of tests at least ensures that all added test substance is
present in the test system and available for the exposure of the
organism in dissolved or sorbed form. Mitigation can be taken into
account by a factor of 10 applied to the ecotoxicty result. For risk
assessment purposes these ecotoxicity results can be compared with the
total or bulk concentration in surface water.
Long-term test results for fish are not available.
Testing of vertebrates should be avoided due to animal welfare
reasons. Comparing the available data on acute toxicity for fish and
invertebrates indicates that additional chronic tests using fish might
not contribute additional information relevant for risk assessment for
TOXICITY TO AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES
Regarding the acute toxicity data towardsDaphnia magna(table
3.2.2 and 3.2.8) a dependence on the chain length of primary fatty
amines cannot be stated.
The lowest short-term result forDaphnia magnawas found for
oleylamine (Akzo Nobel, 1995a). This study was conducted according to
the OECD Guideline 202 (1984) in the presence or absence of humic acid
with Armeen OD (purity 94%) as test substance. Daphnia were exposed to
five test concentrations in the nominal concentration range between
0.006 and0.09mg/l in a static system for 48 h at a temperature of
19.1-19.7°C and a pH of 8.0-8.2.For the preparation of the stock
dispersions (0.1 g/l) ultrasonic treatment was used and during each
dosing step the stock solutions were stirred. At the start of the tests,
all test solutions were clear and homogeneous. Again, during all tests
the test substance content (measured at0 hand 48 h via HPLC) decreased
strongly showing a wide spread of the recovery rates(test without humic
acid: recovery 48-118%, mean value 81%; test with 10 mg/l humic acid:
recovery 23-98%, mean value 56%; test with 20 mg/l humic acid: recovery
0-23%, mean value 7.4%).Due to this, no calculations based on measured
concentrations were performed.
Based on nominal concentrations the 48h-EC50 values were
calculated as 0.011 mg/l (without humic acid),0.43mg/l (10 mg/l humic
acid) and0.56mg/l (20 mg/l humic acid). Compared to the test results
without humic acid, the addition of 10 mg/l humic acid resulted in an
approximate 40-fold higher EC50.
Additionally, studies using different species of invertebrates
describing effects of pH, temperature and stage of insect development
are reported for different primary fatty amines (table 184.108.40.206.1-1 and
220.127.116.11.1-3). An enhancement of toxicity of octylamine and decylamine on
larval mortality ofElminius modestusat higher pH and lower
temperature is described by Christie & Crisp (1966). Larvae ofCulex
pipiensquinquefasciatus are more sensitive to primary fatty amines
than pupae (Mulla 1967 a, b) andAedes aegypti(Cline 1972). Larvae
and pupae ofAnophelessp. andAedessp. are of similar
sensivity to oleylamine and coco alkyl amines (Mulla 1970).
Additional acute daphnia tests (see Table
18.104.22.168.1-1) in natural river water (River Boehme) with aDOCof
6.3 mg/l and suspended matter of 16.7 mg/L (APAG, 2006a & b) were
carried out. In river water the Primary alkyl amines which are cationic
surfactants at pH relevant in the environment, are either dissolved in
water or sorbed to dissolved and particulate matter. No sorption to
glass ware occurs under these conditions which were confirmed by
measurements. This ensures reliable as well as reproducible results.
Ecotoxicity is mitigated due to sorption but this kind of tests at least
ensures that all added test substance is present in the test system and
available for the exposure of the organism in dissolved or sorbed form.
Mitigation can be taken into account by a factor of 10 applied to the
ecotoxicty result. For risk assessment purposes these ecotoxicity
results can be compared with the total or bulk concentration in surface
The chronic toxicity of coco alkyl amine (Armeen CD), tallow alkyl
amine (Armeen TD) and oleylamine (Armeen OD) toDaphnia magnawas
studied under comparable conditions by Noack (2002 a-c) using a
semi-static test system according to the OECD Guideline 211 (Sept.
1998).Five test concentrations in the nominal concentration range
between 0.013 and 0.5 mg/l were applied by diluting a stock dispersion
(10 mg/l). Testsolutions were renewed three times per week. As dilution
water natural river water of agricultural background (middle reach of
the river“Böhme”, lowerSaxony) was used. This river has been chosen due
to its properties representing typical conditions of a German medium
sized river. The concentration of suspended matter measured in the river
water was in a range of 11.2 to 32.8 mg/l (mean value 18.4 mg/l) for
coco alkyl amine and tallow alkyl amine and in a range of 10.0 to
26.2 mg/l (mean value 17.4 mg/l) for oleylamine. The content of humic
acid amounted to 11.8 mg/l in all tests. A pre-treatment of the test
vessels was not performed.
The concentrations of the active ingredient were determined in the
old and new test media once per week in the stock solution, the highest
test concentration of 0.5 mg/l and the control via GC-analysis. All
samples were taken and analyzed without filtration to include test item
adsorbed on suspended matter. In all tests the test item concentration
decreased at the end of the test and recovery rates varied strongly (see
table 3.2.6). According to the test protocol the most probable reason
for the decrease or incomplete recovery during the test was seen in
adsorption on particulate matter and humic acids. The variation in the
recovery rates were explained by small differences in the concentration
of suspended matter. The results were therefore based on nominal
concentrations representing the total exposure concentration (dissolved
and adsorbed on humic acid / suspended matter).
magna repro test with natural river water-analytically verified
concentrations of the highest test item concentration (0.5 mg/l) [mg/l]
Coco alkyl amine
Tallow alkyl amine
new media(0 hours)
old media(3 days)
limit of quantification
Referring to nominal concentrations a 21d-NOECrepro of 0.013 mg/l
was derived forcoco alkyl amine, tallow alkyl amine and oleylamine. When
considering the validity of these studies, the following factors should
be taken into account:
measures were taken to prevent the loss of test substance by adsorption
onto surface of the test vessels. Therefore, a quantification of the
fraction lost by adsorption onto the glass ware is not possible.
the highest test concentration was analytically verified showing highly
variable recovery rates. At concentrations around the NOEC even lower
recovery rates have to be expected. Due to this, the exposure
concentrations maintained during the studies are highly uncertain.
TOXICITY TO ALGAE
Tab. 22.214.171.124-1 and 126.96.36.199-1 summarize the most relevant toxicity
test results for aquatic algae.
The lowest effect values (nominal) for aquatic algae have been
found for coco alkyl amine (96h-EBC50 = 0.0008 mg/l, 96-NOEC = 0.0002
mg/l), hydrogenated tallow alkyl amine (96h-EBC50 = 0.012 mg/l, 96-NOEC
= 0.008 mg/l) and tallow alkyl amine (96h-EBC50 = 0.007 mg/l, 96-NOEC =
0.002 mg/l). These studies were conducted according to the OECD
Guideline 201 (1984) withScenedesmus subspicatusas test organism
by Berol Nobel (1991c-e):
For the preparation of the stock solutions solubilizer were used.
The test vessels were exposed to the test substance overnight to allow
pre-adsorption onto the surface of the glassware. At the start of the
tests the glassware was rinsed with the test solution to be tested and
then refilled with the fresh test solution. Samples for measurement of
growth were taken every 24 hours and the absorbance was determined with
a photometer at 665 nm. The cell densities of the control cultures at
initiation and at termination were measured by direct counting. As no
analytical measurements were performed, test results were based on
The actual cell concentration in the control after 72 hours is not
given in the test reports but an estimation can be made by plotting the
absorbance against cell number of the 0 and 96 h control values and
assuming that the calibration was linear up to the maximum absorbance
used. This estimation leads to conclusion that in the studies with coco
alkyl amine and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amine the increase of cell
concentration in the control was to low (well below factor 16). For this
reason and due to the missing analytical data at very low effect
concentration levels, the test results of Berol Nobel (1991c-e) are
regarded as not suitable for effects assessment purposes.
Other EC50-values reported for primary fatty amines are in the
nominal concentration range between0.04mg/l (oleylamine, tested in
synthetic medium) and0.46mg/l (oleylamine, tested in natural river
For coco alkyl amine (Armeen CD), tallow alkyl amine (Armeen TD)
and oleylamine (Armeen OD) test results are available, which were
determined in natural, unfiltered river water (Noack 2002 d-f). Studies
were conducted according to the OECD Guideline 201 (1984) in a static
test system (temperature approx. 23°C, pH approx. 8) withDesmodesmus
subspicatus(Scenedesmus subspicatus) as test organism. A
pre-treatment of test vessels was not performed. Again, water of the
river “Böhme” was used as dilution water (see section 188.8.131.52.2-1, long
term toxicity). Exposure concentrations were analytically verified at 0
and 72 h in the highest tested concentration using GC/MS-analysis.
Again, due to variations in the content of suspended matter and the
adsorbing properties of the test substances, decreasing test
concentrations associated with strongly varying recovery rates were
observed(coco alkyl amine: 0-120%, mean 60%; tallow alkyl amine: 73-23%,
mean 48%; oleylamine: 72-0%, mean 36%). Test results were therefore
based on nominal concentrations. Referring to nominal concentrations for
coco alkyl amine a 72h-ERC50 of0.16mg/l (72h-NOEC of 0.06 mg/l), for
tallow alkyl amine a 72h-ERC50 of0.39mg/l (72h-NOEC of 0.125 mg/l) and
for oleylamine a 72h-ERC50 of0.46mg/l (72h-NOEC of0.15mg/l) was
determined indicating a slight decrease of toxicity with raising chain
TOXICITY TO AQUATIC MICROORGANISM
A number of tests on inhibition of respiration according to OECD
Guideline 209 was conducted. An overview of the results is presented in
tests according to OECD 209 [mg/l]
Suspended with ultra-turrax
Hoechst AG (1989b)
direct addition of TS
Hoechst AG (1992a)
Hoechst AG (1989c)
Hoechst AG (1993b)
Hoechst AG (1992b)
The results of the respiration tests suggest that the toxicity of
hydrogenated tallow amine and octadecenylamine to sewage sludge is much
lower than that of coco and tallow amine. Regarding the test results
with other organisms, similar toxicity of the compounds is expected. It
can be assumed that the different results may be caused by different
bioavailability of the test substances. As discussed earlier,
bioavailability of the test substances is largely dependent on the
method of preparation of the test medium, although there is no real
explanation for the differences of individual tests. For the PNEC
derivation, the lowest effect value found with coco amine as test
substance are used.
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