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EC number: 701-068-0
CAS number: 2156592-58-2
Weight of Evidence
None of the approaches
described in the chapter 5.3.1 used to derive the BCFof
Primary alkyl amines can give a reliable results which addresses the
full ADME process especially for fish. Therefore a Weight of Evidence
Approach has to be applied.
1) The test design for an
OECD 305 test for the measuring of theBCFis
not suitable. The result from this preliminary test has an uncertainty
which cannot be judged.
2) The ADME model of Arnot &
Gobas (2003) can address the ADME process but only for the unprotonated
amine. Due to the relatively high metabolic rate from an in vitro
predicted based on uptake of the unprotonated C16 amine which is
considered as a worst case assumption.
methods based on Log Kow,predict higher BCFvalues
for the unprotonated than for the protonated C16 amine
4) The model of Fu et al
(2009) is the only model which can address the coexisting protonated and
unprotonated C16 amine as function of pH. Unfortunately it does address
only the Adsorption of the ADME process and in addition it is not known
if it is valid for cationic surfactants.
The most suitable approach
to derive aBCFfor
Primary alkyl amines is the ADME Model of Arnot and Gobas (2003) for the
unprotonated C16 amine. Most likely this is conservative when the values
are compared with the pH dependend results from Fu et al (2009).
C16 amine is a model
compound for the Primary alkyl amines. Therefore it is proposed to use for
the Primary alkyl amines aBCFof
estimated by the ADME Model of Arnot & Gobas (2003) on basis of a Weight
It is known from the
literature that worms e.g. earthworm Eisenia fetida can metabolize
xenobiotics like di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate enzymatically and with help
of intestinal microorganisms (Albro et al, 1993).
1-Hexadecanamine (C16 amine) and other primary alkylamines no measured
rates for metabolic degradation in worms are available. In addition a
measured BCFwormdoes not exist as well.
Only recently models for the
estimation of bioaccumulation in terrestrial food-chain became available
(e.g. Armitage & Gobas, 2007). But these models require Log Kowas
well as a metabolic rate constant and therefore BCFwormfor
primary alkylamines cannot be estimated reliably. But it may be assumed
that the BCFwormis similarly low as the BCFfishas
the amines will most likely also be rapidly biodegraded by the worms as
well as by the microorganism being present in the worm gut. In addition
C12 to C18 amines are rapidly biodegraded in soils with a median
half-life of 8.9 d at 20 degree C which lowers considerably the exposure
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