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Environmental fate & pathways

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There is quite a lot of outdoor monitoring data of CS2 in surface waters and air and some data on the occurence of CS2 in soil. Typical concentrations in urban areas, without known large emission sources in the vicinity can range up to 0.5 µg/m3 in air, 0.4 µg/L in surface waters and 0.5 µg/kg soil. Concentrations at remote locations (e.g. oceans) are several orders of magnitude lower.

In the vicinity of large emission sources annual average sources concentrations of ca 10 µg/m3 in air can be found. Hourly average concentrations can range up to 100 µg/m3. Natural emissions due to volcanic eruptions and emissions in marshes etc. can lead to short term concentrations up to 18 µg/m3. In polluted areas surface waters CS2 concentrations can reach several µg/L. The highest concentration that was measured in the immediate vicinity of a chemical plant in Canada reached 25 µg/L. CS2 emissions from the sediment in sulphur rich environments can lead to long term concentrations up to 4 - 11 mg/L (for several months, measured in an Alpine lake in Switserland), but typically these concentrations are much lower ± 0.1 µg/L (Canadian surface waters and Venice lagoon).