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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to birds

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Administrative data

Link to relevant study record(s)

Description of key information

Acute: LD50 >2250 mg/kg bw, C. virginianus and A. platyrhynchos, EPA OPP 71-1, Palmer & Beavers 1996d; 1996e
Short term: LC50 >5620 mg/kg bw, C. virginianus and A. platyrhynchos, EPA OPP 71-2, OECD 205, ASTM E857-87, Palmer & Beavers 1996f; 1996g
Long-term: NOEC 675 mg/kg, C. virginianus and A. platyrhynchos, EPA 71-4, OECD 206, ASTM E1062-86, Frey, Beavers & Jaber 1998; 1998b

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Long-term EC10, LC10 or NOEC for birds:
675 mg/kg food

Additional information

Acute, short-term and reproduction studies have each been submitted for two species, the Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos).

In the acute oral toxicity studies, one dose of the test material was administered via an oral gavage. Birds were exposed to concentrations of 292, 486, 810, 1350 and 2250 mg /kg b.w. and observed for mortality and signs of toxicity over 14 days. No mortalities were observed in either study and thus the LD50 for both species was determined to be > 2250 mg/kg.

In the eight day short-term toxicity studies, birds were exposed to the test material at 562, 1000, 1780, 3160 and 5620 ppm administered via feeding for five days with a three day post-exposure period. No mortality was observed in either species up to the maximum concentration tested and therefore the LC50 was determined to be >5620 ppm (equivalent to >5620 mg/kg). A slight reduction in weight gain and feed consumption was observed in the highest dose group for C. virginianus, thus the NOEL for that species was determined to be 3160 ppm.

In the long-term reproductive studies, birds were exposed to the test material for either 21 or 22 weeks at nominal concentrations of 75, 225 and 675 ppm administered via feeding. In both studies no significant treatment related effects were observed in either adult or reproductive parameters. The NOEC was therefore determined to be 675 ppm (equivalent to 675 mg/kg).

The short-term toxicity studies are considered to be more representative of the effects of short-term toxicity than the acute oral studies and so these studies have been selected as key studies, along with the long-term reproductive toxicity studies. All studies were performed to a high standard, in line with GLP and standardised guidelines. They have thus been assigned a reliability score of 1 in line with the principles for assessing data quality set out by Klimisch (1997). The available data are deemed to be relevant, reliable and adequate for the purposes of risk assessment.