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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to terrestrial arthropods

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Description of key information

Contact: LD50 >100 µg a.i./bee, NOEC 100 µg a.i./bee, 48 hours, EPA OPP 141-1, EPPO 170, Palmers & Beavers 1996b
Oral: LD50 >20 µg a.i./bee, NOEC 20 µg a.i./bee, 48 hours, EPPO 170, Palmers & Beavers 1996c

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

Two key studies have been provided to address the toxicity to terrestrial arthropods, an acute oral and an acute contact study in the honeybee.

Palmer & Beavers (1996b) addressed contact toxicity with Apis mellifera exposed to the test material at 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 µg a.i./bee by topical application to the abdomen and/or the thorax. Under the conditions of the test, no treatment related mortalities or signs of toxicity were observed in any of the test groups. One incidental mortality was observed in the 6.25 µg a.i./bee treatment group but this is not considered to relate to treatment with the test material. The LD50 was determined to be >100 µg a.i./bee and the NOEC to be 100 µg a.i./bee.

Palmer & Beavers (1996c) addressed acute oral toxicity with Apis mellifera exposed to the test material at 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 10 and 20 µg a.i./bee administered in a 50% sucrose solution. Under the conditions of the test percentage mortality at test termination in the 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 10 and 20 µg a.i./bee treatment groups was 3%, 0%, 3%, 0% and 3%, respectively. The number of mortalities observed was comparable to those of the negative and solvent controls; the observed deaths did not occur in a dose-responsive pattern and are therefore considered to be incidental. One bee in the 1.25 µg a.i./bee dose group and one in the 20 µg a.i./bee dose group was immobile, at approximately 45 minutes after test initiation. All other surviving bees were normal in both appearance and behaviour throughout the test period. The observed clinical signs showed no dose response pattern, thus the observed immobile bees are not considered to be caused by exposure to the test material. Under the conditions of the test, the LD50 was determined to be >20 µg a.i./bee and the NOEC to be 20 µg a.i./bee.

Both studies were performed to a high standard, in line with GLP and in accordance with standardised guidelines. They have thus been assigned a reliability score of 1 in line with the principles for assessing data quality as set out in Klimisch (1997). The available data are deemed to be relevant, reliable and adequate for the purposes of risk assessment.