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EC number: 202-853-6
CAS number: 100-44-7
Acute toxicity to daphnids:
NOEC(48h) = 2.5 mg/L for Daphnia magna (EPA guideline 660/3-75-009) (based on nominal concentration)
NOEC (48h) = 1.0 mg/L for Daphnia magne (OECD TG 202) (based on nominal concentration)
EC50 (48h) = 6.1 mg/L (95% C.I.: 5 - 10 mg/L) for Daphnia magna (EPA guideline 660/3-75-009) (based on nominal concentration)
EC50 (48h) = 3.2 mg/L for Daphnia magna (95% C.I. 2.8 - 3.8 mg/L) (OECD TG 202)
EC50 (24h) = 4.2 mg/L for Daphnia magna (OECD TG 202)
EC50(24h) = 8.4 mg/ for LDaphnia magna (similar procedure to OECD Guideline 202)
EC50(24h) = 1.3 mg/L (P 95%: 1.1 - 1.6 mg/L) for Daphnia magna (strain IRCHA) (similar procedure to OECD Guideline 202)
Acute toxicity to shrimps:
LC50(96h) = 3.9 mg/L (95% CI: 3.3 - 4.6 mg/L) nominal concentrations and 0.14 mg/L measured concentrations for Penaeus setiferus (EPA guideline 660/3-75-009 which is similar to EPA OPPTS 850.1045)
studies are available for acute toxicity on aquatic invertebrates.
OECD SIDS (1998) describes a test performed by the Environment Agency of
Japan (1995). The effect onDapnia magnawas assessed in a 48-hour
semi-static acute toxicity tests, closed system, according to OECD
Guideline 202. The EC50 of the invertebrateDapnia magna after 24
hours and 48 hours exposure was determined to be 4.2 mg/l and 3.2 mg/l
respectively. The NOEC was determined to be 1.0 mg/l.
to OECD SIDS publication in 1998, three other studies are available
(Calvert and Adams, 1982 and Bringmann and Kühn, 1977 and 1982).
Calvert and Adams (1982), a GLP-compliant acute
immobilization test according to guideline EPA 660/3-75-009, which is
similar to OECD Guideline 202 was performed.Daphnia magnawas
exposed under static conditions to benzyl chloride for 48 hours. Three
series of 10 specimens were tested at nominal concentrations of 0.62,
1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/L. Prior to making the test solution, benzyl
chloride was first dissolved in dimethylformamide. Hence besides the
control a solvent control was added to the test. Furthermore, dissolved
oxygen, pH, alkalinity, hardness and temperature were measured during
the test in all vessels. The EC50(48h) was 6.1 mg/L (95% C.I.: 5 - 10
mg/L) and the NOEC(48h) was 2.5 mg/L based on nominal concentrations.
Thus, benzyl chloride is not hazardous toDaphnia magnain the
conditions tested according to the CLP regulation (EC) N° 1272/2008.
and Kühn (1977, 1982) also used an acute immobilization test similar to
OECD Guideline 202 to exposeDaphnia magna(strain IRCHA in the
study of 1982) to benzyl chloride under static conditions for 24 hours.
In 1982 these authors assessed the EC0(24h) and EC100(24h) at 0.66 and 5
mg/L respectively. In both studies, series of 10 dapnids of max. 24h old
(3 replicas in 1977 and 2 in 1982) were exposed to a dilution series
ofthe test substance. In the test of Bringmann and Kühn (1977) the
estimated EC50(24h) was 8.4 mg/L. According to the study of these
authors in 1982 the estimated EC50(24h) of benzyl chloride was 1.3 mg/L
(P 95%: 1.1 - 1.6 mg/L). The latter test used a referencesubstance
(potassium dichromate) for which a valid result was obtained (average
EC50: 1.3 mg/L; required range: 0.9 - 1.9 mg/L). In view of these
results, benzyl chloride cannot be classified based on the CLP
regulation (EC) N° 1272/2008 since the test duration was 24h instead of
the required 48h.
et al. (1979) performed a short-term toxicity study on shrimps (Penaeus
setiferus) according to guideline EPA 660/3-75-009 which is similar
to EPA OPPTS 850.1045. The test animals were exposed under static
conditions to benzyl chloride during 96h. Four series of three organisms
were exposed to a range of nominal concentrations with at least a
dilution factor of 60% and at least two controls were included. The slow
degradation of benzyl chloride into benzyl alcohol and HCl in the
dilution water did not lead to a decrease in pH to a toxic level nor
cause any oxygen depletion problem. Furthermore the percentage of
mortality in the controls during the 96h test period was below 10%. The
LC50(96h) was 3.9 mg/L (95% CI: 3.3 - 4.6 mg/L) based on nominal
concentrations and 0.14 mg/L based on measured concentrations. Based on
the classification categories given in the CLP regulation (EC) N°
1272/2008 no classification for benzyl chloride can be done as for
crustaceans as a EC50 after 48h is requested.
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