Registration Dossier

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Environmental fate & pathways

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

BASF, 1981 - Readily biodegradability_DIN 38 409 part 43/H5 (Determination of Biological Oxygen Demand; BOD): 75 % degradation within 5 days - readily biodegradable

Additional information

Abiotic degradation


In general, phototransformation and hydrolysis are the main abiotic degradation pathways for a substance. Choline chloride is neither susceptible for phototransformation in air, water and soil nor for hydrolysis under environmental conditions. Experimental investigations are not triggered for a registration under REACH.


 


Biotic degradation


Choline chloride was found to be "readily biodegradable" (BASF AG, 1984). Therefore, no further investigations for biotic degradation are triggered. The substance will be degraded when entering the environmental compartment and therefore will not be persistent.


 


Bioaccumulation


Bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms is not expected for Choline chloride. The first indication for that conclusion is given by the substance specific logPow of -3.77 (experimentally determined, BASF AG, 1988). Bioaccumulation is expected for substances possessing a partition coefficient in the range of 4.5 to 6 according to ECHA Guidance R.11, PBT Assessment). Confirmation is given by the QSAR predicted bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 3.16 L/kg which is far below the trigger value of 100 at which bioaccumulation is not excluded any longer.


 


Transport and distribution


Soil adsorption is not expected for Choline chloride based on the intrinsic physico-chemical properties, i.e. logPow of -3.77 (BASF AG, 1988). The substance is a Quaternary Ammonium Compound (QAC), thus the soil adsorption will depend upon the cation-exchange capacity beside a variety of other parameters.


The Koc values of the Franco & Trapp method give a good indication on the adsorption potential of a substance depending on the pH conditions of soil. The method ist based in the dissociation constant pKa and logKow for the uncharged molecule. The Koc value at 25 °C was nearly the same for the range of pH 5-8. The resulting Koc at pH 7 is 37.7 L/kg (logKoc: 1.6).


Less reliable Koc estimations are provided by QSAR predictions with KOCWIN v2.01 (Koc: 1.44 L/kg; key value, Chemservice S.A., 2018c; updated 2022; estimation is outside the prediction domain of the program) and SRC PCKOWIN v1.66 (Koc 2.34, reported in SIDS Report), however, the results confirm that the substance possesses only a low soil adsorption capacity.


The Henry´s Law constant was determined as 2.05E-11 Pa*m³/mol at 25 °C by HENRYWIN v3.20 (Chemservice S.A., 2018d).