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Environmental fate & pathways

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Abiotic degradation

In general, phototransformation and hydrolysis are the main abiotic degradation pathways for a substance. Choline chloride is neither susceptible for phototransformation in air, water and soil nor for hydrolysis under environmental conditions. Experimental investigations are not triggered for a registration under REACH.

Biotic degradation

Choline chloride was found to be "readily biodegradable" (BASF AG, 1984). Therefore, no further investigations for biotic degradation are triggered. The substance will be degraded when entering the environmental compartment and therefore will not be persistent.


Bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms is not expected for Choline chloride. The first indication for that conclusion is given by the substance specific logPow of -3.77 (experimentally determined, BASF AG, 1988). Bioaccumulation is expected for substances possessing a partition coefficient in the range of 4.5 to 6 according to ECHA Guidance R.11, PBT Assessment). Confirmation is given by the QSAR predicted bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 3.16 L/kg which is far below the trigger value of 100 at which bioaccumulation is not excluded any longer.

Transport and distribution

Soil adsorption is not expected for Choline chloride based on the intrinsic physico-chemical properties, i.e. logPow of -3.77 (BASF AG, 1988). The substance is a Quaterny Ammonium Compound (QAC), thus the soil adsorption will depend upon the cation-exchange capacity beside a variety of other parameters.

The Koc values of the Franco & Trapp method give a good indication on the adsorption potential of a substance depending on the pH conditions of soil. The method is based on the dissociation constant pKa and the logKow for the uncharged molecule. The Koc value at 25 °C war nearly the same for the range of pH 5 -8 . The resulting Koc at pH 7 is 37.7 L/kg (log Koc: 1.6)

Less reliable Koc estimations are provided by QSAR predictions with KOCWIN v2.00 (Koc: 1.44 L/kg; key value, Chemservice S.A., 2018c; estimation is outside the prediction domain of the program) and SRC PCKOWIN v1.66 (Koc 2.34, reported in SIDS Report), however, the results confirm that the substance possesses only a low soil adsorption capacity.

The Henry´s Law constant was determined as 2.05E-11 Pa*m³/mol at 25 °C by HENRYWIN v3.20 (Chemservice S.A., 2018d).