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Physical & Chemical properties

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Solid calcium chloride occurs as white hard fragments (flakes), granules, prills, crystals or powder that is hygroscopic, deliquescent and soluble in water. The substance exists both in its anhydrous form and several crystallohydrates (mono-, di-, tetra- and hexahydrate). The commercial substance could have small impurities of iron that gives light nuance coloration to the end product depending on the state of oxidation of iron itself (off-white, yellow, pink).

The anhydrous substance has a melting point of 782 ˚C (Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 1994) and a relative density of 2.15 at 15 and 25 ˚C (Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 1994; and Budavari, The Merck Index, 1989). In accordance with Column 2 of REACH Annex VII, the study on boiling point does not need to be conducted, as the substance has a melting point > 300 ˚C. However, data are available showing that calcium chloride has a boiling point > 1600 ˚C. Calcium chloride is very well soluble in water (745 g/L at 20 ˚C). Based on its chemical structure and overall experience in manufacture and handling, the substance is considered to be non-explosive, non-flammable and non-oxidizing. In accordance with Column 2 of REACH Annexes VII-X and/or Sections 1 and/or 2 of Annex XI of REACH and/or REACH Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment, no studies are required on vapour pressure, partition coefficient, surface tension, flash point, auto flammability, stability in organic solvents, dissociation constant and viscosity.

Tests on particle size distribution were performed on 4 samples of calcium chloride (powder of anhydrous CaCl2, crystalline CaCl2x2H2O, calcium chloride flakes and calcium chloride prills). These samples are considered to be typical examples of standard calcium chloride products manufactured by industry. The first two samples were measured by wet laser diffraction, the latter two by sieving. The following results were obtained:

Sample 1 (Calcium Chloride batch Tetra 94-97% Powder): D10 = 8.2 μm (RSD = 35.0%); D50 = 93.2 μm (RSD = 12.3%), D90 = 304.2 μm (RSD = 2.5%) (measurements were performed in triplicate) (Particle Analytical ApS, 2010)

Sample 2 (calcium chloride dihydrate, crystalline): D10 = 118.7 μm, D50 = 243.4 μm, D90 = 434.0 μm (Particle Analytical ApS, 2010)

Sample 3 (calcium chloride flakes): 4.30% < 0.5 mm, 8.90% < 1.0 mm; 25.88% < 2.0 mm; 92.23% < 4 mm; 99.97% < 6.3 mm (Maintpartner, 2010)

Sample 4 (calcium chloride prills): 0.36% > 4 mm; 21.07% fall in the range 2.8-4 mm; 36.43% fall in the range 2-28.mm; 42.14% < 2 mm (Nedmag Industries, 2010).