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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Justification for type of information:
For details and justification of read-across please refer to the read-across report attached to IUCLID section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
3 250 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
2 770 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
Effect range for D. magna is given from three tests. D. magna: arithmetic mean after 48 h exposure is given as 2770 mg/L.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
48-h LC50 values for NaCl averaged 1,042 mg/L: To determine whether the results of reference toxicant tests related to the responses observed in the concurrent exposures to ion combinations, LC50 values were calculated for the reference toxicant tests from the first 11 test groups with C. dubia (total of 1,045 ion solutions tested). During this period, 48-h LC50 values for NaCl averaged 1,042 mg/L as Cl2 with a coefficient of variation equal to 24%. The LC50 value from the concurrent reference toxicant test was included as an independent variable for each ion solution and thus considered by the stepwise logistic regression. In this analysis, the reference toxicant variable was not selected as being statistically significant, explaining only 0.12 % of the overall variance. From this, we surmised that there was no consistent relationship between the sensitivity of the test organisms (as measured by the reference toxicant test) and the responses of organisms in the concurrent ion exposures. For this reason, the reference toxicant test results were not considered further in subsequent regressions.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Coefficients of variation for LC50 values for individual ion combinations were typical for acute toxicity tests, with means of 17 % for D. magna (SD = 7.5; range 4.8–31).

The measured ion concentrations in the stock solution differed less than 20 % from nominal concentrations and, thus, calculations are based on nominal values. To calculate ion concentrations in actual test solutions, the concentrations in the applicable stock solutions were multiplied by the relative proportion of each solution in the test solution. Because the dilution water (MHRW) also contained small concentrations of each ion, these background concentrations were then added to the calculated contributions from the stock solutions.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
Within the framework of analysing statistical models to predict the toxicity of major ions to aquatic invertebrates and freshwater fish the toxicity of CaCl2 to Daphnia manga was assessed. The study was conducted according to U.S. EPA national methods.
Executive summary:

The 48 -hr acute toxicity of CaCl2 to Daphnia magna was studied under static conditions. Daphnids were exposed to control, positive control (NaCl), and appropriate nominal test chemical for 48 hours. Mortality was observed at test termination. The 48-hr LC50 was determined at a mean of 2770 mg/L.

Based on the results of this study, CaCl2 would not be classified as toxic to D. magna in accordance with the CLP classification system.

This study is classified as acceptable for an acute toxicity study with freshwater invertebrates.

Results synopsis

Test organism age (e.g. 1st instar): < 24 h

Test type: Static

LC50: 2770 mg/L

Endpoint(s) effected: Mortality

This information is used in a read-across approach in the assessment of the target substance. For details and justification of read-across please refer to the read-across report attached to IUCLID section 13.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Justification for type of information:
For details and justification of read-across please refer to the read-across report attached to IUCLID section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
320 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
750 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The LC50 (48h) of Daphnia magna equals 750 mg/L.
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of L-(+)-lactic acid to Daphnia magna was assessed using the methods outlined by the Committee on Methods for Toxicity Tests with Aquatic Organisms. Water quality parameters of temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were measured at the termination of the test and were within acceptable limits. The results of the 48 hour static Daphnia magna toxicity study is: LC50 (48 h) = 750 mg/L. All reported values are based upon nominal concentrations. The no effect level observed for lactic acid was 320 mg/L after 48 hours, which was based on the lack of mortality and abnormal effects.


This information is used in a read-across approach in the assessment of the target substance. For details and justification of read-across please refer to the read-across report attached to IUCLID section 13.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Justification for type of information:
For details and justification of read-across please refer to the read-across report attached to IUCLID section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
GLP compliance:
yes
Post exposure observation period:
None.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 10 g/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 10 g/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
behaviour
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 6 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: sodium-L-lactate
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 6 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: sodium-L-lactate
Basis for effect:
behaviour

Table 1. Number of mobile animals (Daphnia magna) at one concentrations of sodium L(-) lactate and after several exposure times.

Time

 (h)

Nominal concentration of test substance (mg/L)

0

10,000

0

40a)

40a)

24

40a)

40b)

48

40a)

40b)

 

a)Condition of all test animals, visually assessed, normal (=good).

b)Condition of all test animals, visually assessed, equal to that of the control animals.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
No effects on mobility or behaviour were reported at concentrations as high as 6000 mg sodium L(-) lactate/L. Sodium L(-) lactate is not acutely toxic to Daphnia magna.
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of sodium-L-lactate to the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna was determined as decribed in the OECD guideline no. 202 and according to the OECD principles of Good Laboratory Practice.

The test was carried out with 8 × 5 daphnias (eightfold test solutions) for the test concentration and control, and the test solutions were not replaced.

The exposure duration was 48 hours.

The nominal concentrations tested was 10,000 mg/L based on the test material, which equals 6000 mg/L sodium-L-lactate.

At the start of the test the testsubstance appeared to be completely dissolved (visually assessed).

The actual concentration of sodium-L-lactate in the test solutions was determined at the start and end of the test by measurement of the sodium concentration (ICP-AES). They were between 104 and 91 % of the nominal concentrations (average 97.5 %).

No effects of sodium-L-lactate on mobility or condition of the daphnids were observed.

The results of the test were (in nominal concentrations):

48-h NOEC (mobility = 48-h EC0): 6000 mg sodium-L-lactate/L

48-h NOEC (condition): 6000 mg sodium sodium-L-lactate/L

This information is used in a read-across approach in the assessment of the target substance. For details and justification of read-across please refer to the read-across report attached to IUCLID section 13.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Justification for type of information:
For details and justification of read-across please refer to the read-across report attached to IUCLID section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
250 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
130 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Details on results:
Test solutions were not neutralised. Effects on the mobility of the daphnids are hence likely to be caused by the pH shift.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The 48 h EC50 (immobilisation) of lactic acid to Daphnia magna is 130 mg/L, elicited by the pH shift.
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of the test material, a solution of about 80% L(+)-lactic acid, to the fresh-water crustacean Daphnia magna was determined as described in the OECD guideline no. 202 and according to the OECD principles of Good Laboratory Practice. The test was carried out with 4 × 5 daphnias (quadruplicate test solutions) at each concentration, and the test solutions were not replaced. The exposure duration was 48 hours. The nominal concentrations tested were 32, 56, 100, 180, 320 and 560 mg/L. At the start of the test the test substance appeared to be completely dissolved at all concentrations tested (visually assessed). The actual concentrations of L-(+)-lactic acid were determined enzymatically with a Boehringer test kit. They were between 42 and 76 % of nominal just after dosing (average 59 %). To test the stability, the concentrations of L-(+)-lactic acid were also analysed at the end of the test and were between 58 and 78 % of nominal (average 71 %).

The results of the test were (as nominal concentrations):

24 h EC50 (mobility): 240 mg/L

48h EC50 (mobility): 240 mg/L

48h EC100 (mobility) 320 mg/L

The 48-h EC50 based on measured concentrations was 130 mg/L.

This information is used in a read-across approach in the assessment of the target substance. For details and justification of read-across please refer to the read-across report attached to IUCLID section 13.

Description of key information

No adverse effects of Sodium lactate were observed in a short-term toxicity test with the fresh-water crustacean Daphnia magna at concentrations up to 6000 mg/L. This study is used for read-across to Calcium (S)-lactate. Sodium lactate and Calcium (S)-lactate fully dissociate to lactate and Na+ or Ca2+. Sodium and calcium ions are naturally present in water and both are essential nutrients for Daphnia. The ecotoxicological effects of Sodium- or Calcium (S)-lactate in the environment can be understood in terms of the ecotoxicological effects of lactate. Based on the absence of effects by Sodium lactate at concentrations 60 times the limit concentration (100 mg/L) it can safely be concluded that no effects by Calcium (S)-lactate occur at the limit concentration either. Therefore, no hazard has been identified.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information