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Toxicological information

Specific investigations: other studies

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
specific investigations: other studies
Adequacy of study:
other information
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
secondary literature
Remarks:
Taken from OECD SIDS on Sodium bicarbonate (2002), where a similar reliability was assigned.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Effects of Bicarbonate, Citrate, and Phosphate Loading on Performance
Author:
Horswill, C.A.
Year:
1995
Bibliographic source:
Int. J. Sport Nutr. suppl., S111-S119

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
other
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Sodium hydrogencarbonate
EC Number:
205-633-8
EC Name:
Sodium hydrogencarbonate
Cas Number:
144-55-8
Molecular formula:
CH2O3.Na
IUPAC Name:
sodium hydrogen carbonate
Details on test material:
SOURCE: Not reported.
PURITY: Not reported.
IMPURITY/ADDITIVE/ETC.:Not reported.
ANY OTHER INFORMATION: Not reported.

Test animals

Species:
human
Sex:
not specified

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
other: oral
Vehicle:
other: solution or capsule
Frequency of treatment:
single dose or several doses taken over several hours.
Doses / concentrations
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
0.1-0.5 g/kg
Basis:

Control animals:
not specified
Details on study design:
Observation period: no data

Results and discussion

Any other information on results incl. tables

This paper reviews the theoretical mechanisms whereby bicarbonate may enhance physical performance at high intensities. Ingested bicarbonate elevates the bicarbonate concentration in the extracellular space, but not the intracellular space. The mechanism by which bicarbonate loading exerts its influence may be through the elevation of the extracellular bicarbonate concentrations, which then increases rate of efflux of H+ from the intracellular space.

Others claim that the ingested sodium changes the strong-ion difference, and that this change, not the bicarbonate per se, produces the increase in blood buffering capacity. The typical protocol employed to administer a sodium bicarbonate buffer was a dose of 0.1-6.0 mmol/kg given as a single oral dose (solution or capsule), either as one dose 1 hr before performance, or as repeated doses taken over several hours before performance. A positive correlation was found between bicarbonate dosage and the extent of improvement in performance, using data generated from mean values reported in the literature. 0.3 g/kg is the apparent minimum effective dose. The ergogenic effects of bicarbonate appear to be most consistent either when exercise protocols involve repeated sprints that are interspersed with short recovery periods or when protocols commence at submaximal intensities, becoming progressively more difficult, and culminate at near-maximum levels. During a performance the blood bicarbonate system becomes the primary mechanism for buffering H+ only after the subject reaches the anaerobic threshold. Despite the existing results it hasn't yet been conclusively demonstrated that buffers can improve sport performance.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

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