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EC number: 276-911-4
CAS number: 72829-25-5
Based on the molecular weight of
802.01g/mol for Reactive Red 024:1, it can be assumed to have moderate
oral absorption. However, with the high water solubility of 434 g/L,
Reactive Red 024:1 may readily dissolve into the gastrointestinal fluids
and be absorbed via passive diffusion. In an acute oral toxicity study
with Reactive Red 024:1 (1972), higher doses (>1000 mg/kg bw) caused
ataxia, muscular hypotonia, hypoventilation, dyspnoea, inhibition of the
response to pain (pinching) and convulsions. 5 males and 3 females at
the dose of 10000 mg/kg bw were found dead after 1-2 days. In the
28-days repeated dose toxicity study with the structurally similar
substance Reactive Red 286,red stained feces were noted in males and
females at all dose levels (100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day). Red
discoloration was also detected macroscopically in multiple organs, like
kidneys, mesenteric lymphnodes and stomach. In the micronucleus assay
withstructurally similar substance Reactive Red 286, the animals showed
discoloured urine after treatment with 2000 mg/kg b.w. indicating the
bioavailability of the substance. These findings were indicative of
absorption taking place from the gastrointestinal tract. Hence, on the
basis of hydrophilic nature and the findings of the toxicological
studies as discussed above, Reactive Red 024:1 is expected to be
absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract when administered orally.
Based on the molecular weight of
802.01g/mol for Reactive Red 024:1, poor dermal absorption is expected.
With high solubility in water (434 g/L) and low partition coefficient
(-3.52), dermal uptake is expected to be low as Reactive Red 024:1 can
be considered to be too hydrophilic to cross the lipid rich environment
of the stratum corneum. The surface tension of 62.9 mN/m for
Reactive Red 024:1 also suggests a low dermal uptake from skin surfaces.
Reactive Red 024:1 is neither corrosive nor irritating to the skin as
well as eyes. Hence, the experimental data also suggests a low dermal
uptake. However, the findings from the acute oral toxicity with Reactive
Red 024:1 as well as repeated dose oral toxicity study and micronucleus
assay with Reactive Red 286, indicates the potential for absorption
following ingestion and it is therefore possible that the substance will
also be absorbed if it is exposed dermally. Nonetheless, absorption will
be limited and only substantial at higher dosage and the test substance
will be quickly excreted owing to the high water solubility.
Reactive Red 024:1 is expected to have
low volatility based on high melting point of >350 °C, and hence may not
be available for inhalation as a vapour. Further, the high water
solubility (434 g/L), indicates if vapours are produced will be trapped
in the mucus. However, the effects observed in the acute oral toxicity
study with Reactive Red 024:1 as well as repeated dose oral toxicity
study and micronucleus assay with the structurally similar substance
Reactive Red 286, indicate the potential for absorption following
ingestion and it is therefore possible that the substance will also be
absorbed if it is inhaled. Nonetheless, absorption will be limited and
only substantial at higher dosage and the test substance will be quickly
excreted owing to the high water solubility.
Systemic distribution due to the high
water solubility would most likely occur via the serum. Owing to the
high molecular size and hydrophilic nature of the substance (low
n-octanol/water partition coefficient and high water solubility), access
of Reactive Red 024:1to the
central nervous system (CNS) or testes is likely to be restricted by the
blood-brain and blood-testes barriers, whileaccumulation in body
fat is unlikely to occur.
In the genetic toxicity studies
including bacterial reverse mutation assays with Reactive Red 024:1,
mammalian cell gene mutation assay with Reactive Red 286 and available
toxicity studies, there was no evidence to indicate Reactive Red 024:1
or metabolite influenced hepatic metabolism. However, in a chromosomal
aberration test with Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79), the
structurally similar substance Reactive Red 286, was found to be
clastogenic in the absence of metabolic activation, while it was not
clastogenic in the presence of metabolic activation. This indicates
hepatic metabolism may lead to reduced toxicity, however, it should be
taken into consideration that rat S9 fraction is not equivalent to the
human metabolism. Further, the high water solubility of Reactive Red
024:1 suggests that metabolism would be limited and not required to
facilitate renal excretion.
Route of excretion for Reactive Red
024:1 has not been investigated. However, owing to the hydrophilic
nature of the substance, it will be expected to be predominantly
excreted via urine, while any unabsorbed remaining fraction being
excreted in the feces.
Reactive Red 024:1 would be absorbed
primarily in gastrointestinal tract, while limited absorption via dermal
and inhalation exposure can be expected. Systemic distribution would
most likely occur via the serum, while metabolism would be limited and
not required to facilitate renal excretion.
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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