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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to birds

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Link to relevant study record(s)

Description of key information

Only supporting information was identified (Zohravi, 2006) from a study in which a mixture of rare earth elements (Pr, Ce, La) were added to the food of birds. This information is not sufficient to cover this endpoint. However, because toxicity to birds is an Annex X endpoint and therefore not mandatory for this dossier, no further testing is required.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

A single reliable study was identified on the toxicity of cerium to birds. In this study (Zohravi, 2006), one-day old Japanese quails were exposed to REE-citrate in which La (5.5%), Ce (17.5%) and Pr (3.28%) were present. The REE-citrate was added to the diet of the quails for 4 weeks. No significant decrease of growth or increase of mortality was observed during the test compared to the control treatment. The NOECs for both mortality and growth were therefore >= 140 mg Ce/kg diet. However, since the birds were exposed to a mixture of three different rare earth elements, the results of this study are not sufficient to cover this endpoint.

However, being an Annex X endpoint, toxicity to birds is not a mandatory endpoint for the tonnage band for which this joint dossier is prepared. Therefore, no further testing is required.