Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Effects on fertility

Description of key information

In an OECD guideline 422 study (Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study and Reproductive/ Developmental Toxicity Screening Study in the Crl:CD(SD) Rat by Oral Gavage Administration) Macrolex Grün G (CAS 4851-50-7) was administered to three groups of ten male and ten female rats by oral gavage administration, for approximately 6 weeks (males) and up to eight weeks (females) (including a two week pre-pairing phase, pairing, gestation and early lactation for females), at dose levels of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day. A similarly constituted control group received the vehicle, corn oil, at the same volume dose as the treated groups.

The no-observed adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of Macrolex Grün G for systemic toxicity was considered to be 1000 mg/kg/day and the no-observed adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of Macrolex Grün G for reproductive/developmental toxicity was also considered to be 1000 mg/kg/day.

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
screening for reproductive / developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Experimental start date (Pre-dose trial): 11 April 2017 Experimental completion date: 21 September 2017
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 422 (Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
Deviations:
no
Remarks:
No deviations occured that were considered to have affected the integrity or validity of the study.
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Limit test:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Test item: Macrolex Grün G.
Test item identity (including alternative names): 1,4-bis[[4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenyl]amino]-5,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone.
1,4-bis[(4-tert-butylphenyl)amino]- 5,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone.
Appearance: Black powder.
Storage conditions: Room temperature.



Species:
rat
Strain:
other: Crl:CD(SD)
Details on species / strain selection:
The rat was chosen as the test species because of the requirement for a rodent species by regulatory agencies. The Crl:CD(SD) was used because of the historical control data available at this laboratory.
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
Supplier: Charles River (UK) Ltd.
Number of animals ordered: 44 males and 48 females.
Spare animals were removed from the study room after treatment commenced.
Duration of acclimatization:
Males: 8 days prior to the commencement of treatment.
Females: 22 days prior to the commencement of treatment.
Age of the animals at the start of treatment:
Males: 71 to 78 days old
Females: 85 to 92 days old
Weight range of the animals at the start of treatment:
Males: 325 to 415 g
Females: 240 to 293 g

Allocation and Identification
Allocation: On arrival and non-selective allocation to cages.
Estrous cycles were evaluated pre-treatment. After 14 days evaluation, animals that failed to exhibit typical 4-5 days cycles were not allocated to the study.
On Day 1 of study all animals were weighed and body weights were reviewed before dosing commenced by Study Management to ensure variations in body weight of animals did not exceed ± 20% of the mean for each sex. Groups were adjusted to reduce inter-/intra-group variation.
Identification of animals: Each adult animal was assigned a number and identified uniquely within the study by a tail tattoo before Day 1 of treatment. The offspring were numbered individually within each litter on Day 1 of age, using a toe tattoo.

Identification of cages: Each cage label was color-coded according to group and was numbered uniquely with cage and study number, as well as the identity of the occupant(s).

Animal Replacement
Before the commencement of treatment, study allocation was revised to reduce inter/intra group body weight variation by replacement of animals with spares and moving animals within groups. Any individuals rejected during the acclimatization period were replaced with spare animals of suitable weight from the same batch.
Replacement before Irregular estrous cycle Two females
allocation Body weight range extremes Two males and two females

Animal Care and Husbandry
Environmental Control
Rodent facility: Limited barrier - to minimize entry of external biological and chemical agents and to minimize the transference of such agents between rooms.
Air supply: Filtered fresh air which was passed to atmosphere and not recirculated.
Temperature and relative humidity: Monitored and maintained within the range of 20-24ºC and 40-70%.
There were no deviations from these ranges.
Lighting: Artificial lighting, 12 hours light : 12 hours dark.
Electricity supply: Public supply with automatic stand-by generators.

Animal Accommodation
Cages: Cages comprised of a polycarbonate body with a stainless steel mesh lid; changed at appropriate intervals.
Solid (polycarbonate) bottom cages were used during the acclimatization, pre-pairing, treatment, gestation, littering and lactation periods.
Grid bottomed polypropylene cages were used during pairing. These were suspended above absorbent paper which was changed daily during pairing.
Cage distribution: The cages were distributed on the racking to equalize, as far as possible, environmental influences amongst the groups.
Bedding: Solid bottom cages contained softwood based bark-free fiber bedding, which was changed at appropriate intervals each week.

Number of animals per cage
Pre-pairing: up to five animals of one sex
Pairing: one male and one female
Males after mating: up to five animals
Gestation: one female
Lactation: one female + litter

Environmental Enrichment
Aspen chew block: A soft white untreated wood block; provided to each cage throughout the study [(except during pairing and lactation (returned on Day 13 of lactation, after dispatch of the litter)] and replaced when necessary.
Plastic shelter Provided to each cage throughout the study [(except during pairing and lactation (returned on Day 13 of lactation, after dispatch of the litter)] and replaced at the same time as the cages.

Diet Supply
Diet: SDS VRF1 Certified pelleted diet.
A sample (100g) of each batch of diet used was retained within Pharmacy (frozen -10 to -30ºC) until finalization of the report. Samples were discarded after finalization of the report.
The diet contained no added antibiotic or other chemotherapeutic or prophylactic agent.
Availability: Non-restricted.

Water Supply
Supply: Potable water from the public supply via polycarbonate bottles with sipper tubes. Bottles were changed at appropriate intervals.
Availability: Non-restricted.

Supplier Certificates of Analysis
Certificates of analysis for the diet are scrutinized and approved before any batch of diet was released for use. Certificates of analysis were routinely provided by the water supplier.
Certificates of analysis were also received from the suppliers of the softwood based bark-free fiber bedding and Aspen chew blocks.
No specific contaminants were known that may have interfered with or prejudiced the outcome of the study and therefore no special assays were performed.
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
corn oil
Details on exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS:
Method of preparation: The required amount of test item was ground in a mortar using a pestle to a fine powder and mixed with a small amount of the vehicle to form a paste. Any agglomerates were broken down. Further amounts of vehicle were gradually added and mixed to produce a smooth, pourable suspension. The suspension was transferred to a measuring cylinder which had been wetted with vehicle, the mortar was rinsed with vehicle and this was added to the measuring cylinder. Vehicle was added to achieve the final volume and the suspension was transferred to a beaker and mixed using a high shear homogenizer. The suspension was transferred to the final containers, via syringe whilst magnetically stirring.
A series of suspensions at the required concentrations were prepared by dilution of individual weighings of the test item.
Frequency of preparation: Weekly.
Storage of formulation:
Refrigerated (2 to 8°C) for up to 15 days.
Detailed records of compound usage were maintained. The amount of test item necessary to prepare the formulations and the amount actually used were determined on each occasion. The difference between these amounts was checked before the formulations were dispensed.


Details on mating procedure:
Pairing commenced: After a minimum of two weeks of treatment.
Male/female ratio: 1:1 from within the same treatment groups.
Duration of pairing: Up to two weeks.
Daily checks for evidence of mating: Ejected copulation plugs in cage tray and sperm in the vaginal smear.
Day 0 of gestation: When positive evidence of mating was detected.
Male/female separation: Day when mating evidence was detected.
Pre-coital interval: Calculated for each female as the time between first pairing and evidence of mating.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Stability and homogeneity
Before commencement of treatment, the suitability of the proposed mixing procedures was determined and specimen formulations were analyzed to assess the stability and homogeneity of the test item in the liquid matrix.
The homogeneity and stability was confirmed for Macrolex Grün G in corn oil formulations at nominal concentrations of 1 mg/mL and 200 mg/mL during distribution between the bottles, during magnetic stirring for 2 hours, ambient temperature storage for 1 day and refrigerated storage for up to 15 days.

Achieved concentration
Samples of each formulation prepared for administration in Week 1 (for each treatment group) and on Day 10-12 of lactation (females only) were analyzed for achieved concentration of the test item.
The mean concentrations of Macrolex Grün G in test formulations analyzed for the study were within 3% of nominal concentrations, confirming accurate formulation. The % difference between the samples was within 3%, confirming precise analysis.
Procedural recoveries prepared during the trial and routine occasions were within ±7.5% of the mean found value in the validation, confirming the continued accuracy of the method.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Males - Two weeks before pairing up to necropsy after minimum of five weeks.
Females - Two weeks before pairing, then throughout pairing and gestation until Day 13 of lactation.
Animals of the F1 generation were not dosed.
Frequency of treatment:
Once daily at approximately the same time each day.
Dose / conc.:
100 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
300 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10 males and females per dose
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale:
Dose levels were selected, following the completion of the preliminary study Envigo Study Number: KQ40WR and after consultation with the Sponsor. In that study there were no effects on clinical condition, body weights, food consumption, organ weights or macropathology at doses of 500, 800 or 1000 mg/kg/day.
Therefore, the high dose level for this study was 1000 mg/kg/day with the intermediate and low dose levels (300 and 100 mg/kg/day, respectively) chosen to allow the determination of a dose response.
Parental animals: Observations and examinations:
Serial Observations

Clinical Observations
Animals were inspected visually at least twice daily for evidence of ill-health or reaction to treatment. Cages were inspected daily for evidence of animal ill-health amongst the occupant(s). Any deviation from normal was recorded at the time in respect of nature and severity, date and time of onset, duration and progress of the observed condition, as appropriate.
During the acclimatization period, observations of the animals and their cages were recorded at least once per day.

Signs Associated with Dosing
Detailed observations were performed to establish and confirm a pattern of signs in association with dosing according to the following schedule:
F0 males
Week 1 - daily
Week 2 onwards - once each week
F0 females
Week 1 - daily
Week 2 - once
Gestation phase - Days 0, 7, 14 and 20
Lactation phase - Days 1, 6 and 12
Detailed observations were recorded at the following times in relation to dose administration:
Pre-dose observation
One to two hours after completion of dosing
As late as possible in the working day

Detailed physical examination and arena observations
Before treatment commenced and during each week of treatment and on Days 0, 7, 14 and 20 after mating and Days 1, 6 and 12 of lactation, detailed physical examination and arena observations were performed on each animal. On each occasion, the examinations were performed at approximately the same time of day (before dosing during the treatment period), by an observer unaware of the experimental group identities. “Blind” recording was not possible for animals during pairing or for females after mating and during lactation, for logistical reasons, therefore observations were made on these occasions without “blinding”.
After removal from the home cage, animals were assessed for physical condition and behavior during handling and after being placed in a standard arena. Any deviation from normal was recorded with respect to the nature and, where appropriate, degree of severity. Particular attention was paid to possible signs of neurotoxicity, such as convulsions, tremor and abnormalities of gait or behavior.
Findings were either reported as "present" or assigned a severity grade - slight, moderate or marked.

Sensory reactivity and grip strength
Sensory reactivity and grip strength assessments were performed (before dosing) on the five lowest numbered surviving males in each group during Week 5 of treatment and on the first five lactating females in each group at Day 7-9 of lactation. Animals were tested by an observer who was unaware of the treatment group to which each animal belonged. Before the start of observations, male cage labels showing the treatment group were replaced by labels stating only the study, animal and cage numbers. For females, animals were moved into individual cages prior to transport to the testing room. The cage labels on these individual cages showed only the study and animal number. Animals were not necessarily all tested on the same day, but the numbers of animals and the times of testing were balanced across the groups as far as possible on each day of testing.

The following measurements, reflexes and responses were recorded:
Approach response
A blunt probe was brought towards the animal’s head until it was close to the animal’s nose (but not touching the whiskers). The animal’s reaction was recorded as:
1 No reaction or ignores probe/walks past probe
2 Normal awareness and reaction e.g. approaches and/or sniffs probe
3 Active avoidance, abnormally fearful or aggressive reaction

Pinna reflex
The inside of one ear was touched lightly with a nylon filament and the reaction recorded as:
1 No response
2 Normal response e.g. ear twitches/flattens or animal shakes its head
3 Abnormally fearful or aggressive response

Auditory startle reflex
The animal’s response to a sudden sharp noise was assessed and scored as:
1 No response
2 Weak response e.g. ear twitch only
3 Normal response e.g. obvious flinch or startle
4 Exaggerated response e.g. all feet off floor
Tail pinch response
The animal’s tail was pinched sharply with forceps approximately one third from the tip and the response graded as:
1 No response
2 Weak response e.g. turns around slowly or weak vocalization without moving away
3 Normal response e.g. jumps forward or turns around sharply, usually with vocalization
4 Exaggerated response e.g. excessive vocalization, body movement or aggression

Grip strength
Forelimb and hind limb grip strength was measured using Mecmesin Basic Force Gauges. Three trials were performed.
At any point during the observations, additional comments were made as free text where considered appropriate.

Motor activity
During Week 5 of treatment for males and at Day 7-9 of lactation for females, the motor activity of the five lowest numbered surviving males and the first five lactating females in each group was measured (before dosing) using a Rodent Activity Monitoring System (Version 2.0.6), with hardware supplied by Pearson Technical Services and software developed and maintained by Envigo.
Animals were tested individually in clear polycarbonate cages and motor activity was measured by counting infra-red beam breaks over ten 6-minute intervals (one hour total). Ten beams were set at two height levels (five low and five high) to detect cage floor and rearing activity respectively. Animals were not all necessarily tested on the same day, but the numbers of animals and the times of testing were balanced across the groups as far as possible on each day of testing.

Body Weight
The weight of animals was recorded as follows:
F0 males:
Weekly during acclimatization.
Before dosing on the day that treatment commenced (Week 0) and weekly thereafter.
On the day of necropsy.

F0 females:
Weekly during acclimatization.
Before dosing on the day that treatment commenced (Week 0) and weekly before pairing.
Days 0, 7, 14 and 20 after mating.
Day 1, 4, 7 and 13 of lactation.
On the day of necropsy.

Food Consumption
The weight of food supplied to each cage, that remaining and an estimate of any spilled was recorded as follows:
F0 animals:
Weekly, from the day that treatment commenced.
Food consumption was not recorded for males and females during the period when paired for mating (Week 3), but recommenced for males in Week 4.
For females after mating food consumption was performed to match the body weight recording:
Days 0-6, 7-13 and 14-19 after mating.
Days 1-3, 4-6 and 7-12 of lactation.
From these records the mean weekly or daily consumption per animal (g/animal/week or g/animal/day) was calculated for each relevant phase.

Parturition Observations and Gestation Length
Duration of gestation: Time elapsing between the detection of mating and commencement of parturition.
Parturition observations: From Day 20 after mating, females were inspected three times daily for evidence of parturition. The progress and completion of parturition was monitored, numbers of live and dead offspring were recorded and any difficulties observed were recorded.


Hematology, Peripheral Blood
Blood samples were collected after overnight withdrawal of food at the following occasion:

At termination: The five lowest numbered surviving males and the first five lactating females with a surviving litter, in each dose group.

Animals were held under light general anesthesia induced by isoflurane. Blood samples (nominally 0.5 mL) were withdrawn from the sublingual vein, collected into tubes containing EDTA anticoagulant and examined for the following characteristics using a Bayer Advia 120 analyzer:
Hematocrit (Hct)*
Hemoglobin concentration (Hb)
Erythrocyte count (RBC)
Absolute reticulocyte count (Retic)
Mean cell hemoglobin (MCH)*
Mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)*
Mean cell volume (MCV)
Red cell distribution width (RDW)
Total leucocyte count (WBC)
Differential leucocyte count:
Neutrophils (N)
Lymphocytes (L)
Eosinophils (E)
Basophils (B)
Monocytes (M)
Large unstained cells (LUC)
Platelet count (Plt)

* Derived value calculated in ClinAxys

Blood film (prepared for all samples) - Romanowsky stain, examined for abnormalities by light microscopy, in the case of flags from the Advia 120 analyzer. Confirmation or a written description from the blood film was made where appropriate.
Additional blood samples (nominally 0.5mL) were taken into tubes containing citrate anticoagulant and examined using a Stago STA Compact Max analyzer and appropriate reagent in respect of:
Prothrombin time (PT) - using IL PT Fibrinogen reagent.
Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) - using IL APTT reagent.


Blood Chemistry
Blood samples were collected after overnight withdrawal of food at the following occasion:

At termination: The five lowest numbered surviving males per group.
The first five surviving lactating females in each group.


Animals were held under light general anesthesia induced by isoflurane. Blood samples (nominally 0.7 mL) were withdrawn from the sublingual vein and collected into tubes containing lithium heparin as anticoagulant. After separation, the plasma was examined using a Roche P Modular Analyzer in respect of:
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
Total bilirubin (Bili)
Bile acids (Bi Ac)
Urea
Creatinine (Creat)
Glucose (Gluc)
Total cholesterol (Chol)
Triglycerides (Trig)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Chloride (Cl)
Calcium (Ca)
Inorganic phosphorus (Phos)
Total protein (Total Prot)
Albumin (Alb)
Globulin (Glob)

Albumin/globulin ratio (A/G Ratio) was calculated from total protein concentration and analyzed albumin concentration.

Thyroid Hormone Analysis
Blood samples were collected as follows:
At termination: All surviving adult males and females.

Sequence of blood sampling on each occasion: In order to minimize any potential confounding effect of the time of day of blood sampling, the order of blood sampling was controlled to allow satisfactory inter-group comparisons.
Anesthetic: F0 animals: Isoflurane
Blood sample site: F0 adults: Sublingual vein
Anticoagulant:
Plasma samples: K2EDTA. Standard tubes used for collection of samples did not contain separator gel.
Serum samples: None (Greiner Minicollect tubes with clotting activators)
Blood volume:
Adults: 2 x 0.5 mL.

Processing: Plasma samples: Samples were kept on wet ice prior to centrifugation and commenced within 30 minutes of sampling.
Serum samples: Samples were kept at ambient temperature for a minimum of 30 minutes prior to centrifugation.
Centrifugation conditions: At 2000g for ten minutes at 4°C.
Number of aliquots per sample: All available plasma/serum was transferred to appropriately labelled polypropylene “cryo” tubes using micropipettes.
Final storage conditions: Deep frozen (-60 to -90ºC).
Fate of samples: Dispatched to the Department of Biomarkers, Bioanalysis and Clinical Sciences, Envigo.
Thyroid hormone analysis Performed by the Department of Bioanalysis, Envigo.






Oestrous cyclicity (parental animals):
Estrous cycles

Dry and wet smears were taken as follows:
Dry smears:
For 15 days before pairing using cotton swabs.

Wet smears:
Using pipette lavage during the following phases:
For 14 days before treatment (all females including spares); animals that failed to exhibit 4-5 day cycles were not allocated to study.
After pairing until mating.
For four days before scheduled termination (nominally Days 11-14 of lactation).

During necropsy, for the assessment of the ovaries a qualitative evaluation of one section from each ovary was made.
Sperm parameters (parental animals):
During necropsy, for the assessment of the testes, a detailed qualitative examination was made, taking into account the tubular stages of the spermatogenic cycle. The examination was conducted in order to identify treatment related effects such as missing germ cell layers or types, retained spermatids, multinucleate or apoptotic germ cells and sloughing of spermatogenic cells in the lumen. Any cell- or stage-specificity of testicular findings was noted.

Litter observations:
Clinical observations: Examined at approximately 24 hours after birth (Day 1 of age) and then daily thereafter for evidence of ill health or reaction to maternal treatment; these were on an individual offspring basis or for the litter as a whole, as appropriate.
Litter size: Daily records were maintained of mortality and consequent changes in litter size from Days 1-13 of age.
Sex ratio of each litter: Recorded on Days 1, 4, 7 and 13 of age.
Individual offspring body weights: Days 1, 4, 7 and 13 of age.
Ano-genital distance: Day 1 - all F1 offspring.
Nipple/areolae count: Day 13 of age - male offspring.
Postmortem examinations (parental animals):
Method of Kill
All adult animals: Carbon dioxide asphyxiation.
Sequence: To allow satisfactory inter-group comparison.

Necropsy
All adult animals were subject to a detailed necropsy. After a review of the history of each animal, a full macroscopic examination of the tissues was performed. All external features and orifices were examined visually. Any abnormality in the appearance or size of any organ and tissue (external and cut surface) was recorded and the required tissue samples preserved in appropriate fixative. A detailed assessment of any color change in the internal organs, adipose tissue or skin was documented.

Time of Necropsy
F0 males: Week 6.
F0 females: Day 14 of lactation (following terminal blood sampling).

The organs weighed, tissue samples fixed and sections examined microscopically are detailed in tables in the section 'any other information on materials and methods' for F0 animals.

Females
The following were recorded:
Each uterine horn Number of implantation sites was counted and confirmed if none were visible at visual inspection.

Organ Weights
For bilateral organs, left and right organs were weighed together. Requisite organs were weighed for animals killed at scheduled intervals.

Fixation
Tissues were routinely preserved in 10% Neutral Buffered Formalin with the exception of those detailed below:
Testes - Initially in modified Davidson’s fluid.
Eyes - In Davidson’s fluid.

Histology
Processing: Tissue samples were dehydrated, embedded in paraffin wax and sectioned at a nominal four to five micron thickness. For bilateral organs, sections of both organs were prepared. A single section was prepared from each of the remaining tissues required.
Full List: The five lowest surviving F0 males and the first five surviving lactating females in Groups 1 and 4 at scheduled termination.
Abnormalities only: All F0 animals.
Routine staining: Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin; in addition samples of the testes were stained using a standard periodic acid/Schiff (PAS) method.

Light Microscopy
Tissues preserved for examination were examined as follows:
Scheduled kill:
Groups 1 and 4: Five lowest surviving F0 males and the first five surviving lactating females - All specified in the table in section 'any othe information on materials and methods'
All remaining F0 animals - Tissue with abnormalities only.

Findings were either reported as "present" or assigned a severity grade. In the latter case one of the following five grades was used - minimal, slight, moderate, marked or severe. A reviewing pathologist undertook a peer review of the microscopic findings.
Postmortem examinations (offspring):
Method of Kill
Offspring - selected for thyroid hormone sampling on Day 4 and 13 of age: Decapitation.
Offspring - all other: Intraperitoneal injection of sodium pentobarbitone.
Sequence: To allow satisfactory inter-group comparison.

Necropsy

Time of Necropsy
F1 offspring:
Selected offspring for thyroid hormone analysis - Day 4 of age.
Scheduled kill - Day 13 of age.

Offspring
Premature deaths: Where possible, a fresh macroscopic examination (external) with an assessment of stomach for milk content was performed.

F1 offspring on Day 4 of age: Blood sampling required.
Subjected to an external macroscopic examination; particular attention was paid to the external genitalia.
Externally abnormal offspring examined, and retained pending possible future examination.

F1 offspring on Day 13 of age: Blood sampling required.
All animals were subject to an external macroscopic examination; particular attention was paid to the external genitalia. Animals observed with external abnormalities were retained pending possible future examination
Thyroid glands were preserved from one male and one female in each litter.


Thyroid Hormone Analysis
Blood samples were collected as follows:
Day 4 of age: F1 offspring, two females per litter (where possible, ensuring that the number of female offspring did not fall below three).
No pups were allocated to these procedures if the resultant live litter size would fall below ten pups/litter.
- one for T4 (serum)#
- one for TSH (plasma)
# priority given to serum sample

Day 13 of age: F1 offspring, two males and two females per litter (where possible).
- two for T4 (serum): where possible one male and one female#
- two for TSH (plasma): where possible one male and one female)
# priority given to serum sample

Sequence of blood sampling on each occasion: In order to minimize any potential confounding effect of the time of day of blood sampling, the order of blood sampling was controlled to allow satisfactory inter-group comparisons.
Anesthetic: F1 offspring : None
Blood sample site: F1 offspring : Decapitation
Anticoagulant:
Plasma samples: K2EDTA. Standard tubes used for collection of samples did not contain separator gel.
Serum samples: None (Greiner Minicollect tubes with clotting activators)
Blood volume:
Offspring: maximum possible.

Processing: Plasma samples: Samples were kept on wet ice prior to centrifugation and commenced within 30 minutes of sampling.
Serum samples: Samples were kept at ambient temperature for a minimum of 30 minutes prior to centrifugation.
Centrifugation conditions: At 2000g for ten minutes at 4°C.
Number of aliquots per sample: All available plasma/serum was transferred to appropriately labelled polypropylene “cryo” tubes using micropipettes.
Final storage conditions: Deep frozen (-60 to -90ºC).
Fate of samples: Dispatched to the Department of Biomarkers, Bioanalysis and Clinical Sciences, Envigo.
Thyroid hormone analysis Performed by the Department of Bioanalysis, Envigo.

Reproductive indices:
Mating Performance and Fertility
Group values were calculated for males and females separately for the following:
Percentage mating (%) = Number of animals mating / Animals paired x 100

Conception rate (%) = Number of animals achieving pregnancy / Animals mated x 100

Fertility index (%) = Number of animals achieving pregnancy / Animals pairing x 100


Gestation Length and Index
Gestation length was calculated as the number of gestation days up to and including the day on which offspring were first observed, with Day 1 = day of mating for calculation purposes. Where parturition had started overnight, this value was adjusted by subtracting half of one day. Gestation index was calculated for each group as:

Gestation index (%) = Number of live litters born / Number pregnant x 100


Offspring viability indices:
Survival Indices
The following were calculated for each litter:

Post-implantation survival index (%) = Total number of offspring born / Total number of uterine implantation sites x 100

Post-implantation survival index was expressed as 100% where the number of offspring exceeded the number of implantation sites recorded.

Live birth index (%) = Number of live offspring on Day 1 after littering / Total number of offspring born x 100

Viability index (%) = Number of live offspring on Day 4 (before blood sampling) / Number live offspring on Day 1 after littering x 100

Lactation index (%) = Number of live offspring on Day 13 after littering / Number of live offspring on Day 4 (after blood sampling) x 100

Group mean values were calculated from individual litter values.
Sex Ratio
The percentage of male offspring in each litter was calculated at Day 1, and for live offspring on Days 1, 4 (before and after culling) and 13 of age.

Percentage males = Number of males in litter / Total number of offspring in litter x 100

Group mean values were calculated from individual litter values.
Clinical signs:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
There were no signs were observed in association with dose administration.
Clinical signs observed at routine examination comprised several incidences of vocalisation and irritable behaviour in males and females at all dose levels, including Controls. One female receiving 1000 mg/kg/day was recorded to have a twisted muzzle on Day 14 of lactation. No test item-related changes in general clinical condition were observed following treatment with Macrolex Grün G.
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
not examined
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Description (incidence):
There were no premature deaths.
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
For males receiving Macrolex Grün G, overall mean body weight gains between Weeks 0-5 were marginally low at all dose levels when compared with Control values. This was primarily due to a slight dose dependent reduction in body weight gain observed in males between Weeks 0-1, following commencement of treatment, with statistical significance observed at 1000 mg/kg/day.
During the two-week pre-pairing treatment period, females receiving 100 mg/kg/day were unaffected by administration with Macrolex Grün G. For females receiving 300 mg/kg/day, a reduction in body weight gain was observed between Weeks 0-1 (50% lower than Control). Females given Macrolex Grün G at 1000 mg/kg/day exhibited a similar decrease in body weight gain between Weeks 1-2. Mean body weight gain was unaffected when the whole premating period (Weeks 0-2) was considered.
During the gestation period for females receiving Macrolex Grün G at doses up to and including 1000 mg/kg/day, a dose dependent reduction in overall body weight gains was observed (Days 0-20), a lthough no statistical significance was observed.
Following parturition, body weight performance was similar to that of Controls for females receiving 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day up to Day 13 of lactation.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Food consumption for males receiving Macrolex Grün G at doses up to and including 1000 mg/kg/day was considered to be unaffected by treatment.
For females receiving Macrolex Grün G at doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day, food consumption values were similar to those of the Controls throughout the treatment period, gestation and lactation phases.
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not specified
Haematological findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The hematological examination of peripheral blood performed after five weeks of treatment for males and on Day 14 of lactation for females did not reveal any toxicologically significant differences from control.
All inter-group differences, including those attaining statistical significance, were minor, confined to one sex or lacked dose-relationship and were therefore attributed to normal biological variation.
Such differences included the slightly low neutrophil and eosinophil concentrations in males receiving 100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg/day, low prothrombin times in males at 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day, high platelet count in males at 1000 mg/kg/day and high reticulocyte count in females at 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day.
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The biochemical examination of plasma performed after five weeks of treatment for males and on Day 14 of lactation for females did not reveal any toxicologically significant differences from control.
All inter-group differences, including those attaining statistical significance, were minor, confined to one sex or lacked dose-relationship and were therefore attributed to normal biological variation. Such differences included the slightly, but statistically significantly low alkaline phosphatase in males at 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day and alanine aminotransferase in males at 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day and the slightly, but statistically significantly high cholesterol levels in females at 1000 mg/kg/day. Low creatinine concentration was evident in males at 1000 mg/kg/day.
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not specified
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Treatment Related Findings
There were no treatment related changes.

Incidental Findings
Mineralisation was seen in the kidneys (cortex, sometimes correlated with macroscopically pale kidneys) and the glandular mucosa of the stomach of control and treated females. In the stomach; minimal mineralisation was seen in controls and treated females at a similar incidence and was considered unrelated to treatment. In the kidneys; histopathological findings associated with the observed distribution of mineralisation included minimal to slight degeneration/necrosis and minimal dilatation of cortical tubules. The incidence and/or severity of the kidney mineralisation and associated findings appeared slightly increased in treated females compared with controls.
A compilation of background control data (BCD) from similar recent studies was performed for the all above findings. In this BCD, mineralisation of the kidney cortex and cortical tubular degeneration/necrosis each have an incidence range of 0 – 100% and a severity range of minimal to moderate. Cortical tubular dilatation has a BCD incidence range of 0 – 83.3%, with a severity range of minimal to
moderate. Mineralisation of the glandular stomach mucosa has a BCD incidence range of 0 – 60%, with a severity range of minimal to moderate. All these findings within the current study are well within these ranges.
Therefore, the discussed findings are considered to be incidental, with the apparent slight increase in treated females due to chance and not related to treatment.
The incidence and distribution of all other findings were considered to be unrelated to treatment.
Seminiferous tubules were evaluated with respect to their stage in the spermatogenic cycle and the integrity of the various cell types present within the different stages. No cell or stage specific abnormalities were noted.
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not specified
Other effects:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Thyroid Hormone Analysis
There was no effect of treatment on the circulating levels of thyroxine (T4) in adult males.

Sensory Reactivity Observations and Grip Strength
The sensory reactivity observations conducted during Week 5 of treatment for males and Day 7-9 of lactation for females revealed no findings which were considered treatment related in animals receiving Macrolex Grün G at doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day.

Motor Activity
The motor activity assessment conducted during Week 5 of treatment revealed no test-item related effects in male or female animals receiving Macrolex Grün G at all dose levels. It was noted that in male animals receiving 1000 mg/kg/day, a lower than Control statistical significance was seen in the low beam break at the 6 minute testing point, as well as a higher than Control statistical significance seen in the low beam break at 60 minutes. These inconsistent, isolated findings were considered not to be associated with administration of Macrolex Grün G.
Reproductive function: oestrous cycle:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
All females allocated to study showed normal 4/5 day estrous cycles during the acclimatization period.

All females showed diestrus at termination.
Reproductive function: sperm measures:
not examined
Reproductive performance:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Estrous cyclicity, pre-coital interval, gestation length, mating performance, fertility and gestation index were considered unaffected by treatment with Macrolex Grün G.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
clinical signs
mortality
body weight and weight gain
food consumption and compound intake
haematology
clinical biochemistry
organ weights and organ / body weight ratios
gross pathology
histopathology: non-neoplastic
Remarks on result:
other: Systemic toxicity
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
reproductive function (oestrous cycle)
reproductive function (sperm measures)
reproductive performance
Remarks on result:
other: Reproductive toxicity
Critical effects observed:
no
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No signs were recorded that were considered to be related to parental treatment with Macrolex Grün G.
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
not examined
Mortality / viability:
no mortality observed
Description (incidence and severity):
All females that mated were pregnant.
Litter size, offspring survival to Day 13 of age and sex ratio were unaffected by parental treatment with Macrolex Grün G.

Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
The mean body weight performance of both male and female offspring up to Day 13 of age remained similar to those of the Controls at all dose levels. Thus, there were no treatment-related effects on body weights of offspring of parental animals given Macrolex Grün G at doses of 100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg/day.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not specified
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Sexual maturation:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not examined
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
The macroscopic examination of offspring revealed no test item related lesions.
Histopathological findings:
not examined
Other effects:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Offspring Ano-genital Distance
Mean ano-genital distances in males and females were considered to be unaffected by treatment.

Thyroid Hormone Analysis
There was considered to be no effect of treatment upon T4 levels in offspring on Day 13 of age.
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Developmental immunotoxicity:
not examined
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Generation:
F1
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
viability
mortality
clinical biochemistry
gross pathology
Critical effects observed:
no
Reproductive effects observed:
no

Thyroid Hormone Analysis

There was no effect of treatment on the circulating levels of thyroxine (T4) in adult males or in offspring on Day 13 of age.

Group

Treatment

Dose

 

Adult Male at Termination

(pg/mL)

Day 13 of age Offspring (pg/mL)

(mg/kg/day)

Male

Female

1

Corn oil

0

Mean

28500

29700

33400

SD

9340

6580

13400

CV

32.8

22.2

40.1

N

10

10

10

2

Macrolex Grün G

100

Mean

27600

37700

37000

SD

11000

7420

5300

CV

39.9

19.7

14.3

N

10

10

10

3

Macrolex Grün G

300

Mean

26700

36000

38500

SD

12500

6540

7660

CV

46.8

18.2

19.9

N

10

10

10

4

Macrolex Grün G

1000

Mean

32000

28800

37400

SD

8570

5390

7890

CV

26.8

18.7

21.1

N

10

10

10

 

Summary of findings in the gastrointestinal tract for animals killed after 5 weeks of treatment

Group/sex

1M

2M

3M

4M

1F

2F

3F

4F

Dose (mg/kg/day)

0

100

300

500

0

100

300

500

Finding

Abnormal Contents, Green

Caecum

0

3

6

9

0

1

1

4

Colon

0

3

5

9

0

0

1

2

Ileum

0

0

1

2

0

0

1

1

Jejunum

0

0

2

3

0

0

0

0

Rectum

0

0

3

6

0

0

0

2

Stomach

0

1

4

4

0

2

2

6

Number of tissues examined

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

Summary of findings in the stomach for animals killed after 5 weeks of treatment

Group/sex

1M

2M

3M

4M

1F

2F

3F

4F

Dose (mg/kg/day)

0

100

300

1000

0

100

300

1000

Abnormal colour, Green

0

2

5

9

0

8

7

9

Number of tissues examined

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

Summary of general comments for animals killed after 5 weeks of treatment

Group/sex

1M

2M

3M

4M

1F

2F

3F

4F

Dose (mg/kg/day)

0

100

300

1000

0

100

300

1000

Fur stained, Green

0

0

0

8

0

1

0

0

Tail stained, Green

0

0

0

5

0

1

2

6

Number of tissues examined

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

Conclusions:
It was concluded that the oral administration of Macrolex Grün G to parental Sprague-dawley rats at dose levels of 100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg/day administered for two weeks before pairing, during pairing and then up to termination of the males after five weeks of treatment and females on Day 14 of lactation, was well tolerated.
Reproductive performance, fertility, litter size and offspring survival and growth were unaffected by parental treatment and, in the context of this study, Macrolex Grün G showed no evidence of being an endocrine disruptor.
The no-observed adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of Macrolex Grün G for systemic toxicity was considered to be 1000 mg/kg/day and the no-observed adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of Macrolex Grün G for reproductive/developmental toxicity was also considered to be
1000 mg/kg/day.
Executive summary:

Summary

The purpose of this study was to assess the potential systemic toxic potential in Crl:CD(SD) rats, including a screen for reproductive/developmental effects and assessment of endocrine disruptor relevant endpoints, with administration of the test item, Macrolex Grün G, by oral administration forat least five weeks.

Three groups of ten male and ten female rats receivedMacrolex Grün Gat doses of 100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg/day by oral gavage administration. Males were treated daily for two weeks before pairing, up to necropsy after a minimum of five consecutive weeks. Females were treated daily for two weeks before pairing, throughout pairing, gestation and until Day 13 of lactation. Females were allowed to litter, rear their offspring and were killed on Day 14 of lactation. The F1 generation received no direct administration of the test item; any exposure was in utero or via the milk. A similarly constituted Control group received the vehicle, corn oil, at the same volume dose as the treated groups.

During the study, clinical condition, detailed physical examination and arena observations, sensory reactivity, grip strength, motor activity, body weight, food consumption, hematology (peripheral blood), blood chemistry, thyroid hormone analysis, estrous cycles, pre-coital interval, mating performance, fertility, gestation length, organ weight and macroscopic pathology and histopathology investigations were undertaken.

The clinical condition, litter size and survival, sex ratio, body weight, ano-genital distance and macropathology for all offspring were also assessed. Nipple counts were performed on male offspring on Day 13 of age. 

Results

F0 responses

Administration with Macrolex Grün G at doses up to and including 1000 mg/kg/day was considered to generally be well tolerated throughout the treatment period. There were no premature deaths, no dosing signs and no clinical signs observed in association with dose administration.

For males receiving Macrolex Grün G, overall mean body weight gains between Weeks 0-5 were marginally low at all dose levels when compared with Control values. This was primarily due to a slight dose dependent reduction in body weight gain observed in males between Weeks 0-1, following commencement of treatment, with statistical significance observed at 1000 mg/kg/day.

During the two-week pre-pairing treatment period, females receiving 100 mg/kg/day were unaffected by administration withMacrolex Grün G. For females receiving 300 mg/kg/day, a reduction in body weight gain was observed between Weeks 0-1 (50% lower than Control). Females given Macrolex Grün G at 1000 mg/kg/day exhibited a similar decrease in body weight gain between Weeks 1-2.Mean body weight gain wasunaffectedwhen the whole premating period (Weeks 0-2) was considered.During the gestation period for females receiving Macrolex Grün G at doses up to and including 1000 mg/kg/day, a dose dependent reduction in overall body weight gains was observed (Days 0-20), although no statistical significance was observed. Following parturition, body weight performance was similar to that of Controls for females receiving 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day up to Day 13 of lactation.

Estrous cyclicity, pre-coital interval, gestation length, mating performance, fertility and gestation index were unaffected by treatment.

The hematological examination of blood and the biochemical examination of plasma did not reveal any conclusive effect of treatment and there was no effect upon circulating levels of thyroxine (T4) in adult males.

Macroscopic findings were limited to green content, representing the colour of the test item, seen in the caecum, colon, ileum, jejunum, rectum and stomach in treated animals with a dosedependent increase in incidence and greencolour of the stomach seen in treated animals with a dose dependent increase in incidence.Histopathological findings in the full range of tissues examined were considered to be unrelated to treatment. Organ weights were considered unaffected by treatment.

F1 responses

The clinical condition, litter size, sex ratio, survival indices and body weight and weight gain of offspring were unaffected by parental treatment.

There was no effect of parental treatment upon circulating levels of thyroxine (T4) in offspring on Day 13 of age.

The ano-gential distances of offspring were unaffected by paternal treatment and no nipples were seen on any male offspring on Day 13 of age.

No macroscopic findings considered to be related to paternal treatment were recorded.

 

Conclusion

It was concluded that the oral administration of Macrolex Grün G to parental Sprague-dawley rats at dose levels of 100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg/day administeredfor two weeks before pairing, during pairing and then up to termination of the males after five weeks of treatment and females on Day 14 of lactation, was well tolerated.

Reproductive performance, fertility, litter size and offspring survival and growth were unaffected by parental treatment and,in the context of this study,Macrolex Grün Gshowed no evidence of being an endocrine disruptor.

The no-observed adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of Macrolex Grün G for systemic toxicity was considered to be 1000 mg/kg/day and the no-observed adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of Macrolex Grün G for reproductive/developmental toxicity was also considered to be
1000 mg/kg/day.

Effect on fertility: via oral route
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
GLP guideline study
Effect on fertility: via inhalation route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Effect on fertility: via dermal route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Effects on developmental toxicity

Description of key information

There are no data available for Solvent Green 28.

Based on the similar chemical structure and biological activity a category has been defined. The category consists of substances all having the diamino-anthraquinone structure as a common moiety which is linked to phenyl groups via the amino groups. Differences within the category are described by various alkyl groups bound to the phenyl groups. The main properties of all members are the chemical and biochemical stability, the extremely low water solubilities and the high water-octanol partition coefficients. These properties lead to a reduced bioavailability for organisms. Therefore the substances do no exert any toxic effects and thus they are not classified. Category Justification document attached.

The following studies are available for category members.

In an OECD guideline 414 study (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study) one group of 22 females received Macrolex Blau 3R (CAS 41611-76-1; structural analogue or surrogate) at the limit dose of 1000 mg/kg/day by daily oral gavage administration from Day 6 to 19 after mating. Animals were killed on Day 20 after mating for reproductive assessment and fetal examination.

There was no effect of treatment at 1000 mg/kg/day upon embryo-fetal survival or placental weights, and fetal development was also unaffected by treatment at this limit dose, with the incidence of major and minor abnormalities and skeletal variants showing no relationship to treatment.

Based on the results of this embryo-fetal developmental toxicity study in rats the No-Observed-Adverse- Effect-Level (NOAEL) of Macrolex Blau 3R for maternal toxicity and embryo-fetal development was the limit dose of 1000 mg/kg/day.

Effect on developmental toxicity: via oral route
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
GLP guideline study
Effect on developmental toxicity: via inhalation route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Effect on developmental toxicity: via dermal route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Toxicity to reproduction: other studies

Description of key information

No data

Justification for classification or non-classification

In an OECD guideline 422 study (Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study and Reproductive/ Developmental Toxicity Screening Study in the Crl:CD(SD) Rat by Oral Gavage Administration) Macrolex Grün G (CAS 4851-50-7) the no-observed adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for systemic toxicity was considered to be 1000 mg/kg/day and the no-observed adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of Macrolex Grün G for reproductive/developmental toxicity was also considered to be 1000 mg/kg/day.

In an OECD guideline 414 study (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study) the No-Observed-Adverse- Effect-Level (NOAEL) of Macrolex Blau 3R (CAS 41611-76-1; structural analogue or surrogate) for maternal toxicity and embryo-fetal development was the limit dose of 1000 mg/kg/day.

According to CLP classification criteria (Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008) a classification is not justified.