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Environmental fate & pathways

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 The environmental properties of the reaction mass of phenol and 4,4’-isopropylidenediphenol was assessed by examination of the properties of the constituents and impurities of the mixture and using this information in a read across approach as described in section 13.  The substance is manufactured and used under strictly controlled conditions, and thus there are no direct emissions to the environment. Exposures of air, water, sediment, and soil compartments are unlikely to occur. 


The major constituents of the reaction mass exhibit water solubilities ranging from 250 to 85000 mg/L and have relatively low vapor pressures (0.00000000161 to 0.2 hPa at 20 C). These properties would be consistent with low air-water partition coefficients, and thus volatilization from water to air is unlikely to be an important process affecting their environmental distribution. 


Adsorption coefficients (Koc) for the major constituents range from 14 to 91 L/kg and from 251 to 1507 L/kg (average 750 +/ 345 L/kg), suggesting low to moderate sorption potential for phenol and 4,4’-isopropylidenediphenol, respectively.  Measured and estimated adsorption coefficients for several of the impurities, ranging from 1871 to 41420 L/kg suggesting that adsorption to soils and sediments could be of potential importance.


None of the components of the substance contain hydrolysable groups. Therefore, the components of the substance are considered hydrolytically stable


The major constituents, phenol and 4,4’-isopropylidenediphenol (representing 60-85% of the composition), have been shown to meet criteria for classification as readily biodegradable. Biodegradation of the impurities of the substance was assessed using both QSAR estimation and experimental methods. The components are predicted to biodegrade slowly and at varying rates, which is consistent with 16% biodegradation observed in screening tests after 28 days. Overall, the substance (reaction mass of phenol and 4,4’-isopropylidenediphenol) would be expected to ultimately biodegrade in the environment.


The measured bioconcentration factors for the major constituents of the substance range from 1.2 to 67 indicating a low bioaccumulation potential. Bioconcentration potentials for the impurities were estimated using QSAR estimation methods. By analogy with structurally related phenolic compounds, all of the components of the substance are expected to be metabolized and readily eliminated by fish, and hence the use of QSAR models which incorporate metabolism is supported. Estimated BCF values for the minor components range from 107 to 1838 indicating low to moderate bioconcentration potential.