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EC number: 235-120-4
CAS number: 12070-08-5
The acute toxicity to aquatic algae was tested using titanium dioxide and titanium trichloride. Hence, for titanium carbide this endpoint is derived by read-across from titanium dioxide and titanium trichloride.Titanium compounds are of low toxicity for algae. Due to the insolubility of titanium carbide, toxic effects for aquatic algae are not expected to arise from the substance.
reliable key studies for toxicity of titanium dioxide to aquatic algae
are available. The first study was conducted by Wahrheit et al. (2007)
who investigated the toxicity of fine TiO2 (380 nm) and
ultrafine TiO2 (140 nm) to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata
in accordance with OECD guideline 201. The test substance were used at
nominal test concentrations of 0 (control), 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 mg
TiO2/L. The ErC50 for fine and
ultrafine TiO2 in Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was
determined to be 61 and 87 mg/L, respectively.
relatively low toxicity of TiO2 to algae is further supported
by the second key study by Hund-Rinke & Simon (2006) who investigated
toxic effects of nano-size TiO2 (25 nm and 100 nm) to Desmodesmus
subspicatus in a test according to OECD 201. Both particle size
materials were investigated as such and in form of additionally cleaned
material. Actual particle size distribution was not verified. The 48-h ErC50
values for both products and treatments were calculated to be > 50 mg/L.
Respective 48-h ErC10 values ranged between 9.9
mg/L and 47 mg/L.
addition, the results referenced above are supported by a study
investigating 90-d exposure of Chlorella vulgaris to different
concentrations of TiCl3 (Den Dooren, 1965). This exposure
resulted in a 90-d NOEC and LOEC of TiCl3 for Chlorella
vulgaris of 6.5 mg Ti/L and 16 mg Ti/L, respectively.
et al. (2008) investigated the influence of 100 mg TiO2/L
(50-150 nm) on the efficiency of photosynthesis of Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata after exposure for 4.5 h. TiO2 did not result
in a decrease of photosynthesis by the algae.
to lower transformation/dissolution results for titanium carbide (the
target substance) than titanium dioxide and titanium trichloride (the
source substances), the resulting toxicity potential would also be
expected to be lower. Therefore, the dose descriptors are expected to be
sufficiently high for the target substance, and read-across to the
source chemical is adequately protective. In
fact, (eco-)toxicologically relevant release of Ti ions from titanium
carbide is not expected as the concentration of soluble Ti ions was
below the method detection limit (< 0.4 µg/L) in the T/D test. Thus, TiC
is considered to be practically insoluble. Release of Ti ions to any
ecotoxicologically relevant extent (and potential subsequent formation
of soluble and/or insoluble Ti compounds) is not expected. Therefore,
toxic effects for aquatic algae are not expected to arise from TiC.
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