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EC number: 235-120-4
CAS number: 12070-08-5
Titanium carbide was not
tested for acute and chronic aquatic toxicity. Instead, read-across to
titanium dioxide, titanium metal, titanium trichloride, and titanium
tetrachloride was employed for these endpoints.
For titanium substances,
the read-across strategy is predicated on the assumed presence and
bioavailability of a common metal anion in environmental media after
exposure to titanium compounds. This is a reasonable assumption for the
majority of inorganic compounds.
endpoints, it is the relative mobility and the resulting bioavailability
in various environmental compartments that determines the potential
toxicity to ecological receptors. In the absence of data for titanium
carbide, the most straightforward and conservative approach to hazard
evaluation by read-across is to assume that titanium carbide, as the
substance in question, shows the same systemic effects as titanium
dioxide, titanium metal, TiCl3 and TiCl4 which
show a higher release of titanium ions compared to titanium carbide, for
which release of Ti could not be detected in the T/D test (soluble Ti
concentration below the method detection limit of 0.4 µg/L).
The short-term toxicity of
titanium dioxide to fish and aquatic invertebrates was determined to be
L/EC50 > 100 mg TiO2/L. Algae were slightly more sensitive
to titanium dioxide. The lowest 72-h ErC50 of TiO2
in Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata is 61 mg/L, whereas the lowest
72-h ErC10 of 9.9 mg/L is reported for Desmodesmus
Results of a toxicity test
on embryo and sac-fry stages of Danio rerio with titanium dioxide
are used to assess the chronic fish toxicity of the substance. In the
test no deaths were observed at the maximum concentration tested. Thus,
the NOEC is 10 mg TiO2/L.
tetrachloride was tested for toxicity to microorganisms; consequently,
read-across to titanium tetrachloride was used for this endpoint.
Titanium tetrachloride concentrations of 20 mg/L showed 50 % growth
inhibition of Tetrahymena pyriformis after exposure for 6 and 9 h.
Due to lower
transformation/dissolution results for titanium carbide (the target
substance) than the other titanium compounds referenced above (the
source substances), the resulting toxicity potential is also be expected
to be lower. Therefore, the dose descriptors are expected to be
sufficiently high for the target substance, and read-across to the
source chemical is adequately protective. In fact, (eco-)
toxicologically relevant release of Ti ions from titanium carbide is not
expected as the concentration of soluble Ti ions was below the method
detection limit (< 0.4 µg/L) in the T/D test. Thus, TiC in considered to
be practically insoluble, hence release of Ti ions to any
ecotoxicologically relevant extent (and potential subsequent formation
of soluble and/or insoluble Ti compounds) is not expected. Therefore,
any toxic effects to aquatic organisms are not expected to arise from
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