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Description of key information

Short description of key information on bioaccumulation potential result:

Absorption GI-tract: 80%

Distribution: liver 0.45% dose/g tissue, kidney 0.65% dose/g tissue, other organs <0.1% dose/g tissue

Excretion: 72% urine, 22% feces

Metabolites: hydroxylated, carboxylated and sulfonated forms

Short description of key information on absorption rate:

Dermal absorption intact skin: 0.62% recovery from urine, bile and main organs after 24 h

Dermal absorption damaged skin: 50.36% recovery from urine, bile and main organs after 30 h

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Bioaccumulation potential:
no bioaccumulation potential
Absorption rate - dermal (%):
0.62

Additional information

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion:

Absorption via the gastrointestinal tract after oral application was found to equal 80% of the radioactivity administered (Inoue et al., 1982).

Radioactivity levels in blood reached a peak 3 h after administration then rapidly declined. Highest radioactivity levels were measured in liver and kidney 4 hours after administration. Radioactivity was rapidly eliminated from the invested organs after 4 hours. At measurement 24 hours after administration 0.8% dose/g were detected in cecum contents, in other tissues less than 0.02% dose/g were found.

After 24 hours 72 % of the administered dose had been excreted in the urine and 22% in the feces. After 4 days no radioactivity was detected in urine and feces anymore.

Metabolites were accounting for most of the radioactivity found in liver, kidney, urine and bile. In blood the activity of intact Alpha Olefin Sulfonate was one third of that of the metabolites, in the gastrointestinal tract metabolites accounted for one third of the activity. The metabolites were more polar than intact Alpha Olefin Sulfonate and included hydroxylated, carboxylated and sulfonated forms.

 

Dermal absorption:

After application to the intact skin 60 - 70% of total radioactivity was recovered by skin washes, 0.62% of the applied dose was absorbed, and 0.298% of the applied dose was detected in urine (Minegishi et al., 1977).

Radioactivity could be detected in bile and urine within 1 hour after application to intact skin, but in very low amounts. Among the organs liver and kidney showed the highest amounts of radioactivity (0.123% and 0.059% of applied dose, respectively) 24 hours after application. Total recovery from urine, bile and main organs was about 0.62% of the applied dose after 24 hours.

 

In comparison, following application to damaged skin about 50% of the applied dose were found, the recovered activity after 30 hours (50.36% of applied dose, 36.26% in urine and 1.83% in bile) was approximately 80-times that of intact skin. The distribution of radioactivity in the main organs was much larger than that of intact skin, with radioactivity in the liver (9.88%) being in excess compared with the other organs.

Discussion on bioaccumulation potential result:

There is a publication available addressing absorption via the gastrointestinal tract, distribution and excretion after oral administration (Inoue et al., 1982). Additionally, distribution and metabolite formation after intravenous administration were investigated, as well.

 

Absorption via the gastrointestinal tract after oral application was found to equal 80% of the radioactivity administered.

 

Radioactivity levels in blood reached a peak of 0.08% dose/g 3 h after administration then rapidly declined. Only little radioactivity could be detected after 24 hours. Four hours after administration radioactivity levels were determined to be 0.45% dose/g tissue in liver and 0.65 % dose/g tissue in kidney; all other organs investigated except the gastrointestinal tract contained less than 0.1% dose/g tissue. Radioactivity was rapidly eliminated from the invested organs after 4 hours. At measurement 24 hours after administration 0.8% dose/g were detected in cecum contents, in other tissues less than 0.02% dose/g were found.

 

Urinary excretion reached a peak after 4 hours, the cumulative excretion via urine reached 55% after 12 hours. Radioactivity in bile reached a peak after 3 hours, thereafter it rapidly declined, and cumulative excretion was 4.3% after 12 hours. After 24 hours 72 % of the administered dose had been excreted in the urine and 22% in the feces. After 4 days no radioactivity was detected in urine and feces anymore.

 

Metabolites were accounting for most of the radioactivity found in liver, kidney, urine and bile. In blood the activity of intact Alpha Olefin Sulfonate was one third of that of the metabolites, in the gastrointestinal tract metabolites accounted for one third of the activity. The metabolites were more polar than intact Alpha Olefin Sulfonate and included hydroxylated, carboxylated and sulfonated forms.

Discussion on absorption rate:

A publication is available investigating the dermal absorption of Alpha Olefin Sulfonate salts via the intact and damaged skin, respectively, of rats under various application conditions ranging from open to occlusive (Minegishi et al., 1977). Radioactivity was determined in bile and urine and terminally in brain, lung, liver, kidney and spleen 24 hours after application to intact skin.

 

After application to the intact skin 60 - 70% of total radioactivity was recovered by skin washes, 0.62% of the applied dose was absorbed, and 0.298% of the applied dose was detected in urine. In comparison, about 50% of the applied dose was absorbed by damaged skin.

 

Radioactivity could be detected in bile and urine within 1 hour after application to intact skin, but in very low amounts. Among the organs liver and kidney showed the highest amounts of radioactivity (0.123% and 0.059% of dose, respectively) 24 hours after application. Total recovery after 24 hours was about 0.62% of the applied dose from urine, bile and main organs.

 

After application to damaged skin the recovered activity (50.36% of applied dose, 36.25% in urine and 1.83% in bile) was approximately 80-times that of intact skin 30 h after application. The distribution of radioactivity in the main organs was much larger than that of intact skin, with radioactivity in the liver (9.88%) being in excess compared with the other organs.