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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
06.12.2008-15.01.2009
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Recent experimental results and observations.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
no
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Not applicable
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
Not applicable
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Samples and observations made after 24 and 48 hours.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
To produce the only test concentration 105.5 mg of the test item was added to 1 litre of dilution water. The pH was measured to be pH 4.0 and was adjusted to pH 8.0. with 1 M sodium hydroxide solution. 19 mL of the stock solution was taken and diluted with 1 mL dilution water containing 10 daphnids resulting in a final concentration of 100 mg/L. For each test item concentration and control 2 replicates were prepared.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
A population of parthenogenetic females of synchronized age structure has been maintained for more than 15 years in the test facility under constant temperature conditions (20 +/- 1 °C) at a 16 : 8 hour light-dark photoperiod (illumination: < 1000 lux). The culture water (so-called 'M4 medium') was partly renewed once a week. The Daphnia were exclusively fed with unicellular green algae (Desmodesmus subspicatus) 'ad libitum'. Mortalities of parent Daphnia during the culture period were recorded daily in a semi-quantitative way. The neonates were separated from their parent Daphnia by filtration prior to the acute test.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable
Hardness:
Not reported
Test temperature:
During the test a temperature range of 18 - 22°C was maintained in the test vessels, with a maximum temperature fluctuation of +/- 1°C in each individual test.
pH:
All samples are maintained at pH 8.0
Dissolved oxygen:
The concentration remained above 3 mg/L throughout the exposure period.
Salinity:
Not reported
Nominal and measured concentrations:
100 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
Photoperiod; 16 h light and 8 h dark.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
Daphnia were exposed to the test item added to water at a limit test concentration of nominally 100 mg/L for a period of 48 hours. At this concentration no toxic effects against Daphnia were observed at the end of the 48 hour study period. Immobilisation rates were recorded at 24-hour intervals. Analysis of the immoblisation rates gave an EC 50 value of >100 mg/L at both 24 and 48 h.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Not reported

The results collected are summarised below in tables 1 and 2. Analysis of the immobilisation rates showed that there was no toxic effect on Daphnia when exposed to the test item at a concentration of 100 mg/L. No abnormalities were noted.

Table 1: Control

 

Abiotic parameters

24 h

48 h

Temperature [°C]

-----

20.6

Oxygen [mg/L]

-----

8.5

Oxygen [% saturation]

-----

96

pH value

-----

7.8

Immobilisation

24 h

48 h

Absolute

0

0

Cumulative

0

0

Cumulative [%]

0

0

Abnormalities *

24 h

48 h

Abnormal colouration

0/20

0/20

Abnormal swimming behaviour

0/20

0/20

Chemical analysis

0 h

48 h

Sulfate replicates [mg/L]

5.267 / 5.265 #
51.356 / 51.315

51.356/51.315

Comments: * Daphnia with effects / Daphnia, 
                  + = all Daphnia immobile

# The values at 0 h were declared as outliers. The values after 48 h of exposure equal the values of the pre-test (51 mg/L) and the theoretical amount of sulfate content of 48 mg/L in the dilution water. Therefore the values after 0 h were replaced with the values after 48 h exposure for further calculations.

Table 2: 100 mg/L

 

Abiotic parameters

24 h

48 h

Temperature [°C]

-----

20.3

Oxygen [mg/L]

-----

8.6

Oxygen [% saturation]

-----

96

pH value

-----

7.9

Immobilisation

24 h

48 h

Absolute

0

0

Cumulative

0

0

Cumulative [%]

0

0

Abnormalities *

24 h

48 h

Abnormal colouration

0/20

0/20

Abnormal swimming behaviour

0/20

0/20

Chemical analysis

0 h

48 h

Sulfate replicates [mg/L]

102.253/103.352

99.512/99.870

Sulfate mean values [mg/L]

102.803

99.691

Corrected Sulfate values [mg/L](1)

51.467

48.356

Test item [mg/L]

52.547

49.370

Comments: According to the product informations, 1 mg/L sulfate equals 
                    1.0210 mg/L of the test item (structural formula: H2SO4,molecular
                    weight: 98.074 g/moL).

*Daphniawith effects /Daphniamobile, + = allDaphnia immobile

 (1)corrected for control values

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
The immobilisation and other abnormalities in the controls did not exceed 10% by the end of the test. The dissolved oxygen concentration remained above 3 mg/L throughout the exposure period.
Conclusions:
The 48hour EC50 for Daphnia magna exposed to sulfuric acid was observed to be >100 mg/L (the highest concentration tested).
Executive summary:

Daphnia magna were exposed to a limit test concentration of nominally 100 mg/L sulphuric acid dissolved in water. Observations were made on the swimming ability and the immobilisation rate, respectively, after 24 and 48 hours of exposure. There were no observed toxic effects on Daphnia at the limit concentration of 100 mg/L after 48 hours.

Description of key information

An EC50 of >100 mg/L is reported in a study in Daphnia magna.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect concentration:
> 100 mg/L

Additional information

Weyers (2009) performed a study to assess the acute toxicity of sulphuric acid to Daphnia magna STRAUS under static conditions. The study was conducted in accordance with the Council Regulation (EC) No 440/2008, Method C.2 ‘Acute toxicity for Daphnia’ (2008) which is equivalent to OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals No. 202 'Daphnia sp., Acute Immobilisation Test' (adopted April 13, 2004).Daphnia were exposed to a limit test concentration of nominally 100 mg/L sulphuric acid dissolved in water. Observations were made on the swimming ability and the immobilisation rate, respectively, after 24 and 48 hours of exposure. There were no observed toxic effects on Daphnia at the limit concentration of 100 mg/L after 48 hours. The EC50 for this study is therefore >100 mg/L.

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