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Sodium formate is a white crystalline powder (20 °C, 1013 hPa) with a melting point of 258 °C. It is observed to decompose before boiling from 411 °C. It has a relative density of 1.91. As the melting point was measured to be 200-300 °C, the vapour pressure was calculated to be 1x10-6 Pa at 25 °C using the modified Grain method as implemented in the EPISuite MPBPWIN v1.43 model. The log10 partition coefficient of formic acid, a structural analogue, at 23 °C was measured to be -1.9 (pH 5); -2.1 (pH 7); -2.3 (pH 9).

Sodium formate is completely soluble in water at 20 °C (> 1000 g/L), has a dissociation constant of 3.86 at 20 °C and a 1 g/L aqueous solution has a surface tension of 71 mN/m at 20 °C. No self-ignition was observed below 400 °C. Sodium formate is not classified under any physical hazard CLP endpoint. Flash point, stability in organic solvents and viscosity are not applicable to the test item.

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