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Environmental fate & pathways

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

Hydrolysis

In accordance with column 2 of REACH Annex VII, the study does not need to be performed if the substance is readily biodegradable. Sodium formate is readily biodegradable (KM Lab, 1998).

Besides being readily biodegradable, sodium formate dissociates in water to sodium ion and formate ion.

Both of these are considered stable in water. A carboxylic acid is generally the final product of hydrolysis reactions (Lyman, 1990).

Biodegradation

Sodium formate is readily biodegradable.

According to OECD Guidance, when a chemical attains more than 60% ThOD or more than 70% DOC removal in a Biodegradability in Seawater test (OECD 306) it can also be expected to fulfil the criteria for ready biodegradability, given that the degradation potential in seawater in normally lower than in freshwater degradation tests (OECD, 2002). Sodium formate achieved 86% degradation (ThOD) over 28 days in a reliable OECD 306 study, and can therefore be regarded as readily biodegradable (KM Lab, 1998).

Bioaccumulation

In accordance with column 2 of Annex IX, the study does not need to be conducted if the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient is <3. Due to the low logPow of below -1.8 (Perstorp, 2009), accumulation in organisms is not expected. Thus, and for reasons of animal welfare, no study on bioaccumulation in fish is performed.

Adsorption / desorption:

In accordance with column 2 of REACH Annex VIII, the study does not need to be conducted since sodium formate is readily biodegradable (KM Lab, 1998) and has a low potential for adsorption due to high water solubility coupled with a very low octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow <-1.8; Perstorp, 2009).

Read across to formic acid reveals an adsorption rate for the formate ion ofKoc = 31 (log Koc = 1.49) (BASF SE, 2009).

Henry's law constant:

The Henry's Law Constant (HLC) of the analogous substance formic acid was determined to be 0.019 Pa m³/mol at 25 °C (Khan & Brimblecomb, 1992).

Distribution modelling:

Over time, the substance will preferentially distribute into the compartment water.

Additional information

OECD. 2002. OECD Series on Testing and Assessment: Harmonised Integrated Classification System for Human Health and Environmental Hazards of Chemical Substances and Mixtures. OECD Publishing.