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EC number: 231-843-4
CAS number: 7758-94-3
No relevant effects
This endpoint is covered by the category approach for soluble iron salts
(please see the section on physical and chemical properties for the
category justification/report format). Testing for this endpoint has
been waived in accordance with column 2 and Annex XI, part 1 and 2,
Information from Literature Searches and earlier Assessment Approaches
The literature reviews of Vangheluwe & Versonnen (2004), Johnson et al.
(2007) and OECD (2007) revealed some data. The results of the studies,
selected as “reliable” by the respective authors are listed in the
following tables. Nonetheless the experiments must be rated “not
reliable” (Klimisch 3) according to the Klimisch et al. (1997) scale due
to methodological objections against testing of aquatic organisms as
concluded in the beginning of this chapter (section „Ecotoxicological
information“). True, intrinsic toxicity of iron kations in aerobic
aquatic test organisms cannot be determined in studies when the
solubility of the dissolved ferric kation (as the ferrous form will
readily be oxidized to ferric species) is exceeded. None of the
experiments found effects at such low levels (depend on pH, section
“water solubility”). Notwithstanding the methodological objections
formally expressed in the waiving argument for the standard aquatic test
organisms, the following data are mentioned for completeness.
Vangheluwe & Versonnen (2004) report effects to an aquatic air-breathing
snail (Physella gyrina) from the experiments of Birge et al.
(1985, 5. data reliability sheet, p 35). The study is rated “reliable”
by the authors although total (not dissolved) iron concentrations were
measured and only determined 1 hour after administering the iron
solutions and some information about the test is lacking, because it is
well described and generally clear dose-response curves were found. Test
organisms of 0.24 g wet weight from field collection were after 48 h
acclimation for 96 h exposed to ferric sulphate in ASTM water. During
acclimatisation the test organisms were fed algae during acclimation,
but the feeding was discontinued during exposure to eight concentrations
(nominal concentrations of 3.98 - 100 mg/L) and a control in a
semi-static test design (renewal every 12 h). The observed endpoint was
mortality and a 96 h LC50 of 12.1 (10.4-13.9) mg Fe/L was determined.
The study should be rated “not reliable” (Klimisch 3 according to
Klimisch et al. 1979) as the general objections to testing of aquatic
organisms as concluded in the beginning of the ecotoxicological
information chapter apply.
LC50 [mg Fe/L]
Tubifex tubifex, (Sludge worm)
Immobility at pH 6.6
Rathore & Khangarot 2002
Immobility at pH 7.6
86 at 15 °C, 130 at 20 °C (n.t)
Immobility at pH 8.2
Physa gyrina, Pouch snail
Survival at pH 7.2
Birge et al. 1985
Rana hexadactyla, Indian Green Frog
Tadpole survival at pH 6.1
18 (n.ts), 3.6 (n.t)
Khangarot et al. 1985
n.t. = nominal total Fe
n.ts = nominal total test substance
m.t = measured total Fe
Johnson et al. (2007, table 2.9, p 29) lists some more data on marine
orgamisms, i.e an echinoderm (Arbacia punctulata), a snail (Cardium
edule) and an annelid (Ophryotrocha diadema), but the the authors
considered them unreliable.
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