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EC number: 231-843-4
CAS number: 7758-94-3
The available information indicates no concerns with regard to enrichment in air breathing biota.
This endpoint is covered by the category approach for soluble iron
salts (please see the section on physical and chemical properties for
the category justification/report format). Iron as an essential trace
element is well regulated in biota. Differences in uptake rates are
therefore likely to be related to essential needs varying with the
species, size, life stage, seasons etc. rather than indication
bioaccumulation. Where there is a deficiency, iron additions would be
beneficial up to a limiting value. Testing is complicated by speciation
such as the rapid conversion of iron salts to insoluble iron hydroxides.
Nonetheless some information is available from the literature.
A paper by Motalib et al (1997) shows that there is no relationship
between soil iron levels and earthworm tissue bioconcentrations,
indicating that iron uptake is low.
The growth and bioaccumulation of five elements (cadmium, copper, iron,
lead and zinc) in earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) from
unfortified soils was investigated by Rida (1996). Bioaccumulation was
related to the duration of exposure, tested element, and physiological
condition (i.e. adult or cocoon) of the earthworms. The potential
synergistic or antagonistic effects related to the geochemistry of the
tested elements were not evaluated.
Beyer & Stafford (1993) measured iron concentrations in soils and
earthworms from 18 sites at nine confined dredge disposal facilities in
the Great Lakes Region, USA. A minimum of 38 g of earthworms was
collected per site and earthworms’ digestive tracts were not purged,
because wildlife would ingest that soil with their prey. For each of the
18 sites a BAF value was calculated based on the measured soil and
earthworms iron concentrations. An overall median BAF value for the 18
sites of 0.38 can then be calculated. No overall iron bioaccumulation
had been observed
Differences in iron concentrations among terrestrial species seem likely
to be not related to the level in the trophic chain but to the
capability of internal homeostasis and elimination.
Głowacka et al (1997) determined iron concentrations in 14 species of
psyllids and in leaves of their host plants from unpolluted sites in
Finland and two industrially polluted sites in Poland. Psyllids may play
a double role in metal transfer, by producing metalcontaminated honeydew
and as potential prey, mainly for ants. Metal burdens in psyllids were
generally low. The average levels of iron in insects from contaminated
sites in Poland (367.3 and 435.4 mg/kg dry weight) were significantly
higher when compared with the data for psyllids from unpolluted sites in
Finland (273.2 mg/kg dry weight). The biomagnification of metals in
psyllids was species and metal dependent, even in those species which
utilized the same host plant. The average biomagnification factor for
iron in the 14 species was 1.8 indicating little or no biomagnification.
Excretion of metals with honeydew was efficient for elimination of
aluminium, iron, zinc and nickel in Ps. fraxini from a polluted site,
but was generally low in species from unpolluted sites. The ratio of
metal concentrations in honeydew against metal contents in leaves was
generally lower than unity, which demonstrates absence of
bioaccumulation via honeydew secretion.
The available evidence gives no evidence for iron biomagnification
across the terrestrial tropic chains.
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