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Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
23 Aug 2012 to 29 Nov 2012
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 211 (Daphnia magna Reproduction Test)
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method C.20 (Daphnia magna Reproduction Test)
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: OECD Guidance Document No. 23 on Aquatic Toxicity of Difficult Substances and Mixtures, OECD 2000
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 850.1300 (Daphnid Chronic Toxicity Test)
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ISO 10706 (2000)
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Remarks:
Landesamt für Umwelt, Wasserwirtschaft und Gewerbeaufsicht, Mainz, Germany
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficultly soluble test substances)
- Method: The test substance is a mixture that is poorly soluble in water (information from sponsor). Therefore the test solution(s) was prepared following general guidance provided in OECD guideline 23 in order to achieve water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the test substance. Generally, each test solution was prepared by directly adding test substance to test medium. A defined volume of test media was placed into a beaker (3-L nominal volume) and a glass sampling tube was suspended in the beaker with the top of the tube sufficiently above the surface of the test medium to avoid overflow from the surrounding surface layer. The test substance was pipetted carefully on the water surface outside of the glass tubes. The beakers were covered with Parafilm and shaken gently (approx. 50 RPM, to avoid emulsion formation) for about one day. After shaking, the required volume of aqueous fraction (test solution) was drawn off for testing via the glass sampling tube. The exposure was started after separation of the undissolved material. Fresh test solution was prepared for each test solution renewal day (Days 0, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 17, 19) during the experiment. Undissolved test substance was visible outside the glass sampling tube at the water surface in the treatment group after each solution preparation. The test solutions removed from the sampling tube were visibly colorless and clear with no visible undissolved substance. The test solution pH was not adjusted prior to the start of exposure.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Water flea
- Source: The clone of Daphnia magna STRAUS 1820 used was supplied by the Institut National de Recherche Chimique Appliquée, France, in 1978. From this date on this clone was cultured and bred continuously in the Ecotoxicology Laboratory of Experimental Toxicology and Ecology, BASF SE, Ludwigshafen Germany.
- Culture conditions: Daphnia brood stock are kept in mass cultures consisting of approx. 20 – 30 individuals for a maximum of 4 weeks. All individuals in the mass culture originate from a single female. After approximately 14 d the adults have produced at least 3 broods and the young can be used in tests. Offspring are removed from the mass cultures at least once daily during the normal work week to ensure that young daphnia are <24-h old (first instar) at test initiation. Detailed records are kept (in test facility archives) to monitor the health of Daphnia brood stock cultures including observations of young production, mortality, ephippia, and measurement of water chemistry parameters. Only young from healthy cultures without signs of stress are used for testing.
- Feeding during test: yes
- Food type: live green algae Desmodesmus subspicatus
- Amount: ≤109 µL of the algae concentrate
- Frequency: daily

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): The Daphnia are cultured under identical conditions as those in the final test, including test media (Elendt M4), water quality, temperature (20 ± 1 °C), and diet.
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
21 d
Hardness:
2.46 - 2.54 mmol/L
Test temperature:
20 - 21°C
pH:
7.7 - 8.4
Dissolved oxygen:
7.6 - 9.1 mg O2/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: control and 10 mg/L (loading rate, WAF)
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel material, size, headspace, fill volume: 100 mL glass beakers filled with 50 mL test solution
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): 3 times per week
- No. of organisms per vessel: 1
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 10
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 10
- Biomass loading rate: 0.02 animals/mL


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: no
- Photoperiod: 16 h light:8 h darkness
- Light intensity: About 620 - 685 lux at a wave length of 400 - 750 nm

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): Parent mortality, abnormal effects, and numbers of live and dead offspring were assessed daily throughout the experiment. Reproductive success was measured by counting and discarding the offspring produced by each parent. Body length was measured after the 21-d exposure period.
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
Sodium chloride
Key result
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
>= 10 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
WAF
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Key result
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LOELR
Effect conc.:
> 10 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
WAF
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Key result
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
other: EL0
Effect conc.:
>= 10 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
WAF
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
- The test substance had no observable adverse chronic effect on Daphnia magna at a loading rate of 10 mg/L in test media and under test conditions.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
48 h EC50 = 5.13 mg/L
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Student´s t-test was used to evaluate any differences in reproduction and growth as length between the test concentration and control. Wilcoxon’s test (one sided analysis) was used to evaluate any differences in the time to the first brood.

Table: Reproduction and Mortality Summary after 21 d

Test Groups [mg/L]

Reproduction

 

 

Mortality

 

 

 

Mean Living Young per surviving adult

% effect(b)

Parent animals

% effect(b)

0 (control)

167 (35.3%)(a)

-

0

-

10

196

-

0

-

(a) Coefficient of variation for control fecundity

(b) Effect relative to control. Only calculated for statistically significant effects

Table: Biological observations among surviving parent animals in each concentration after a 21 -d exposure

Test Groups [mg/L]

Growth (mean length, mm)

Mean immobile young (per surviving adult)

Mean Days to First Brood

Mean aborted eggs (per surviving adult)

0 (control)

4.6

0.6

8.4

0.9

10

4.7*

0.2

8.1

1.0

* p≤ 0.01

Table: Summarized effect parameters for the main endpoints, reproduction (living young) and % mortality of the parent animals after 21 d based on loading rates

Endpoint

21 day effect concentrations [mg/L], loading

NOELR

LOELR

EL10*

EL20*

EL50*

Reproduction

≥ 10

> 10

> 10

> 10

> 10

Mortality

≥ 10

> 10

> 10

> 10

> 10

* ECx values are estimated since the study is designed as a limit test

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
Under the study conditions, the test substance had no observable adverse chronic effect on Daphnia magna at a loading rate of 10 mg/L. The 21 d chronic NOELR for mortality, reproduction and growth was determined to be ≥10 mg/L (nominal).
Executive summary:

A guideline and GLP-compliant study was conducted to assess the chronic toxicity of the test substance ‘glycerides, C14-18 and C16-18-unsatd. mono-, di- and tri-‘ to Daphnia magna for 21 d under semi-static conditions. Since the test substance is a poorly soluble mixture, 10 mg/L was loaded into a test vessel and water accommodated fractions were used for the experiment. No analytical determination was reported. All the values given were therefore nominal. Parent mortality, abnormal effects, and numbers of live and dead offsprings were assessed daily throughout the experiment. Reproductive success was measured by counting and discarding the offspring produced by each parent. Body length was measured after the 21 -d exposure period. Under the study conditions, the test substance had no observable adverse chronic effect on Daphnia magna at a loading rate of 10 mg/L. The 21 d chronic NOELR for mortality, reproduction and growth was determined to be ≥10 mg/L (nominal) (Salinas, 2013).

Description of key information

No adequate chronic toxicity study was available with the any of the deodorizer distillates. However, a 21-day daphnia study conducted with the 'glycerides, C14-18 and C16-18-unsatd. mono-, di- and tri-‘ which has similar chain length distribution as part of the glyceride constituent of ‘soaps, stocks, vegetable oil, acidulated’ did not show any effects on mortality, reproduction and growth. The 21 d chronic NOELR for these effects was established at ≥10 mg/L (nominal). Considering this information together with the ready biodegradability potential of the substance, low estimated BCF values for the major constituents (see section 4.3), toxicokinetic information from mammals as well as the metabolic potential of fish to break down tiglycerides to their constituent fatty acids which are then metabolised and used as source of energy (Tocher, 2003) all suggests that the ‘soaps, stocks, vegetable oil, acidulated’ will not bioaccumulate.

Therefore, no long-term toxicity to fish is expected and hence no further testing is considered to be required, in accordance with Annex IX, Section 9, Column 2 of the REACH legislation.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

No adequate chronic toxicity study was available with the any of the deodorizer distillates. However, a 21-day daphnia study conducted with the 'glycerides, C14-18 and C16-18-unsatd. mono-, di- and tri-‘ which has similar chain length distribution as part of the glyceride constituent of ‘soaps, stocks, vegetable oil, acidulated’ did not show any effects on mortality, reproduction and growth. The 21 d chronic NOELR for these effects was established at ≥10 mg/L (nominal).

Further, the ‘soaps, stocks, vegetable oil, acidulated’ presents low water solubility and is considered to be rapidly degradable in the aquatic environment. As such, the substancewould be present at relatively low concentrations in the aquatic environment leading to limitedbioavailability for aquatic organisms. Also, low estimated BCF values for the major constituents and toxicokinetic information from mammals suggests that none of the constituents is likely to bioaccumulate significantly in aquatic or terrestrial organisms even after repeated exposure. In addition, similar to the mammals the triglycerides or lipids are known to be broken down to their constituent fatty acids which are then metabolized via beta-oxidation to serve as an important source of energy for growth and reproduction in fish (Tocher, 2003).

Considering the above information, no long-term toxicity to fish is expected and hence no further testing is considered to be required, in accordance with Annex IX, Section 9, Column 2 of the REACH legislation.

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