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Physical & Chemical properties

Nanomaterial agglomeration / aggregation

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
nanomaterial agglomeration/aggregation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with generally accepted scientific standards and described in sufficient detail

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2017
Report Date:
2017

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
Granulometry (primary particle size and shape, aggregate/agglomerate size and primary particle size distribution (number-based)) was determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).
The specimens were examined using a Tecnai Spirit microscope (FEI, Eindhoven, The Netherlands) and using ParticleSizer software.
GLP compliance:
no
Type of method:
transmission electron microscopy

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
solid: nanoform, surface-treated
Remarks:
aqueous suspension of nanomaterial
Details on test material:
Spherical particles
Particle size distribution (primary particles; number-based): Min = 5 nm, D25 = 7 nm, D50 = 8 nm, D75 = 9 nm, Max = 61 nm
Volume specific surface area: 714 m2/cm3
Zeta potential: -33.5 mV

Data gathering

Instruments:
Tecnai Spirit microscope (FEI, Eindhoven, The Netherlands)

Results and discussion

Agglomerate / aggregate diameter
Mean diameter:
8.5 nm
St. dev.:
2.3 nm
Medium:
Double distilled water
Remarks on result:
other: Min. Feret diameter
Agglomerate / aggregate sizeopen allclose all
Percentile:
D25
Mean:
7 nm
Medium:
Double distilled water
Remarks on result:
other: Min. Feret diameter
Percentile:
D50
Mean:
8 nm
Medium:
Double distilled water
Remarks on result:
other: Min. Feret diameter
Percentile:
D75
Mean:
9 nm
Medium:
Double distilled water
Remarks on result:
other: Min. Feret diameter

Any other information on results incl. tables

Column

Size

(number of observations)

Mean

(nm)

Std Dev

(nm)

Max

(nm)

Min

(nm)

Median

(nm)

25%

(nm)

75%

(nm)

Area

9996

68,1

72,7

4000,0

0,1

56,9

47,0

71,1

Area Conv. Hull

9996

70,5

88,4

4000,0

0,1

58,0

48,1

72,2

Peri.

9996

28,7

10,5

322,0

0,6

27,0

24,0

30,0

Peri. Conv. Hull

9996

28,4

8,9

240,0

0,6

27,0

24,0

30,0

Feret

9996

9,6

3,3

90,0

0,3

9,0

8,0

10,0

Min. Feret

9996

8,5

2,3

62,0

0,0

8,0

7,0

9,0

Maximum inscribed circle diameter

9996

8,0

2,0

30,0

0,3

8,0

7,0

9,0

Area equivalent circle diameter

9996

9,0

2,5

69,0

0,3

9,0

8,0

10,0

Long Side Length MBR

9996

9,2

3,2

80,0

0,2

9,0

8,0

10,0

Short Side Length MBR

9996

8,5

2,4

70,0

0,0

8,0

7,0

9,0

Aspect Ratio

9996

1,070

0,107

2,924

1,000

1,046

1,021

1,086

Circ.

9996

0,002

0,001

0,014

0,000

0,002

0,002

0,002

Elong.

9996

12,859

1,730

56,443

4,793

12,410

12,270

12,896

Convexity

9996

0,279

0,096

0,863

0,023

0,273

0,217

0,331

Solidity

9996

0,989

0,025

1,000

0,653

1,000

0,992

1,000

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
TEM images show that the sample consists mainly of single primary particles and the agglomerates are composed of a few particles and generally have a size below 100 nm. This is confirmed by the quantitative analysis, which shows agglomerate sizes almost similar to the sizes of the primary particles, and thus confirming limited agglomeration.