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Physical & Chemical properties

Nanomaterial agglomeration / aggregation

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
nanomaterial agglomeration/aggregation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with generally accepted scientific standards and described in sufficient detail

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2017
Report date:
2017

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
Granulometry (primary particle size and shape, aggregate/agglomerate size and primary particle size distribution (number-based)) was determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).
The specimens were examined using a Tecnai Spirit microscope (FEI, Eindhoven, The Netherlands) and using ParticleSizer software.
GLP compliance:
no
Type of method:
transmission electron microscopy

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Silver
EC Number:
231-131-3
EC Name:
Silver
Cas Number:
7440-22-4
Molecular formula:
Ag
IUPAC Name:
Silver
Test material form:
solid: nanoform, surface-treated
Remarks:
paste of nanomaterial
Details on test material:
Spherical particles
Particle size distribution (primary particles; number-based): Min = 11 nm, D25 = 25 nm, D50 = 34 nm, D75 = 48 nm, Max = 161 nm
Volume specific surface area: 150 m2/cm3
Zeta potential: -23.3 mV

Data gathering

Instruments:
Tecnai Spirit microscope (FEI, Eindhoven, The Netherlands)

Results and discussion

Agglomerate / aggregate diameter
Mean diameter:
50 nm
St. dev.:
42.3 nm
Medium:
0.01 M NaOH
Remarks on result:
other: Min. Feret diameter
Agglomerate / aggregate sizeopen allclose all
Percentile:
D25
Mean:
26 nm
St. dev.:
0
Medium:
0.01 M NaOH
Remarks on result:
other: Min. Feret diameter
Percentile:
D50
Mean:
36 nm
St. dev.:
0
Medium:
0.01 M NaOH
Remarks on result:
other: Min. Feret diameter
Percentile:
D75
Mean:
57 nm
St. dev.:
0
Medium:
0.01 M NaOH
Remarks on result:
other: Min. Feret diameter

Any other information on results incl. tables

Column

 

Size
(number of observations)

Mean

Std Dev

Max

Min

Median

25%

75%

Area

(nm2)

427

3759,8

7735,5

79000,0

1,4

1000,0

662,1

3000,0

Area Conv. Hull

(nm2)

427

4708,2

11784,1

125000,0

2,1

1000,0

685,8

4000,0

Peri.

(nm)

427

231,4

292,7

2746,0

3,0

140,0

94,0

243,8

Peri. Conv. Hull

(nm)

427

198,0

171,5

1385,0

3,0

139,0

94,0

232,8

Feret

(nm)

427

73,1

65,0

550,0

1,0

52,0

33,0

87,8

Min. Feret

(nm)

427

50,0

42,3

370,0

0,6

36,0

26,0

57,0

Maximum inscribed circle diameter

(nm)

427

35,4

18,8

119,0

1,0

32,0

24,0

43,0

Area equivalent circle diameter

(nm)

427

55,6

41,5

317,0

1,0

43,0

29,0

64,8

Long Side Length MBR

(nm)

427

70,2

61,8

501,0

1,0

51,0

31,0

85,8

Short Side Length MBR

(nm)

427

50,5

42,9

374,0

0,6

36,0

26,0

58,0

Aspect Ratio

(N/A)

427

1,249

0,238

2,176

1,000

1,172

1,063

1,350

Circ.

(N/A)

427

13,253

1,260

21,562

11,950

12,852

12,425

13,621

Elong.

(N/A)

427

0,430

0,142

0,752

0,098

0,430

0,326

0,530

Convexity

(N/A)

427

0,998

0,009

1,000

0,900

1,000

1,000

1,000

Solidity

(N/A)

427

0,978

0,017

0,994

0,837

0,984

0,977

0,988

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
TEM images show that the sample consists mainly of small single primary particles and agglomerates of larger primary particles.