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EC number: 231-131-3
CAS number: 7440-22-4
This is a GLP, guideline study and is considered reliable and fully
acceptable for use for this endpoint.
In a non-GLP, guideline test, the 217 day early-life stage EC10
(mortality) of AgNO3 to Salmo trutta was determined to be 0.23 µg/L
In a non-GLP, guideline test, the 196 day early-life stage EC10
(mortality) of AgNO3 to Oncorhynchus mykiss was determined to be 0.17 µg
See table provided in Materials and methods.
The chronic toxicity of silver to rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss,
was determined in flow-through exposures in two water types; soft water
in the presence and absence of 49 mg l-1 NaCl (30 mg Cl l-1). Rainbow
trout embryos were exposed to silver (as AgNO3) from 48h or less
post-fertilization to 30d post-swimup. The NOEC was > than 1.25 μg
dissolved Ag l-1 (measured) for survival, mean day to hatch, mean day to
swimup, growth and whole-body sodium content in the unamended water. 96%
mortality was observed in the highest test concentration in the
NaCl-amended water exposure 4 μg Ag l-1, nominal (2.26 μg dissolved Ag
l-1 measured). This concentration was not included in the unamended
water exposures. Average dry weights of surviving organisms exposed in
NaCl-amended water were significantly reduced in treatments ≥ 0.48 μg
dissolved Ag l-1, the NOEC was 0.21 μg dissolved Ag l-1. Differences in
sensitivity to silver may have been partly due to the fact that
different strains of rainbow trout were used. Whole body silver
concentrations increased significantly at 0.13 μg dissolved Ag l-1
(measured) in unamended water and at 1.09 dissolved Ag l-1 (measured) in
This guideline study observed GLP and is considered reliable and fully
acceptable for use as a supporting study for this endpoint. Reliable
LC10 and EC10 for O. mykiss for the endpoint mortality of 1.24 μg/L and
0.89 μg/L for the endpoint weight could be extracted. All values are
reported as dissolved Ag.
A GLP, guideline, 34 days post-hatch early-life stage test with AgNO3 to
Pimephales promelas ws performed.
Wide confidence intervals of the LC10 values are noted for the endpoint
mortality and therefore only the NOEC were selected for that endpoint,
i.e. NOEC of 0.351, 0.27 and 1.0 μg/L, resulting in a geomean of 0.46
For the endpoint hatching the EC10 of 0.38 μg/L was selected.
For the endpoint growth the NOEC of 0.351, and the EC10 of 0.32 and 0.86
μg/L were selected, resulting in a geomean of 0.46 µg/L.
All toxicity values are expressed as dissolved Ag.
Read across from ionic silver
Plus supporting published data from several studies included in the
REACH dossier as Endpoint Study Records with various sizes of
nanoparticles and coating types, showing that nanosilver is less toxic
than ionic silver
of available data for uncoated and coated nanosilver
and relevant data in the long-term toxicity of uncoated and coated
nanosilver to fish are available from two studies (Kwok et al. 2012,
Schäfers and Weil 2013). Both studies were based on early-life stage
exposure of fish embryos. Kwok et al. (2012) report the effects of
various forms of nanosilver on Oryzias latipes (Japanese
medaka) after 21 days exposure, whilst Schäfers and Weil (2013) report
the effects of exposure to NM-300K standard nanosilver in Danio
rerio (zebra fish) after a 35 day OECD 210 early life test. Both
studies were conducted in freshwater media.
et al. (2012) exposed medaka embryos to two sizes of PVP coated
spherical nanoparticles with mean raw materials particle sizes of 21 ±
7 and 75 ± 21 nm, as well as citrate and gum arabic coated nanosilver
particles with mean particle raw materials sizes of 7 ± 11 and 6 ± 2
nm, respectively (gum arabic particle measurements are based on the
silver core of the particles). All forms of nanosilver were found to
aggregate/agglomerate in test systems, with aggregates/agglomerates of
PVP coated silver nanoparticles reported to exceed 1 µm in size after
48 hours within the test system. NOECs for survival after 21 days
exposure ranged from 150 µg/L for the larger PVP coated and citrate
coated nanosilver particles, 500 µg/L for the gum arabic coated silver
particles and 1,500 µg/L for the smallest PVP coated nanoparticles.
The equivalent NOEC for ionic silver (silver nitrate) exposure for 21
days was 15 µg/L, approximately 10 times more toxic than the forms of
nanosilver used in the study.
and Weil (2013) exposed zebrafish embryos to uncoated NM-300K
nanosilver in an OECD standard early life-stage toxicity test (OECD
210). NM-300K has a primary particle size of 15 nm (with 99% of
particles below 20 nm) and is widely used in the OECD Sponsorship
Programme for the testing of engineered nanomaterials. Test were
semi-static with seven day renewal periods for media. Aggregates of
50-60 nm were reported in test media and were considered stable
between media renewals. The test was initiated with fertilised eggs
and various endpoints were monitored during the test period including
hatching success, post-hatch success (survival), length, weight and
abnormal development. All test validity criteria were achieved and an
overall NOEC of 5.9 µg/L was reported (length and weight endpoints).
An EC10 of 41 µg/L was also reported for post-hatch survival. No
concurrent exposure with ionic silver was undertaken.
of the studies report effects at concentrations approaching the EC10
for chronic exposure to fish of 0.17 µg/L for ionic silver used in the
REACH CSR. The EC10 for ionic silver is currently approximately 30
times more sensitive than the most sensitive chronic fish toxicity
data for nanosilver, although the exposure duration of the study with
dissolved silver was significantly longer than the available studies
with nanosilver. As such, the hazard properties of ionic silver are
considered to adequately cover the potential hazard of nanosilver to
is currently insufficient information available to make any
conclusions regarding the influence of particle size, morphology or
coating on the long-term toxicity of nanosilver to fish.
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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