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EC number: 231-131-3
CAS number: 7440-22-4
In a non-GLP, guideline test, the 217 day early-life stage EC10
(mortality) of AgNO3 to Salmo trutta was determined to be 0.19 µg/L
In a non-GLP, guideline test, the 196 day early-life stage EC10
(mortality) of AgNO3 to Oncorhynchus mykiss was determined to be 0.17 µg
In a GLP, guideline, test the 28 days post-hatch early-life stage EC10
(growth) of AgNO3 to Pimephales promelas was determined to be 0.39 µg
This is a GLP, guideline study and is considered reliable and fully
acceptable for use for this endpoint.
of available data for uncoated and coated nanosilver
and relevant data in the long-term toxicity of uncoated and coated
nanosilver to fish are available from two studies (Kwok et al. 2012,
Schäfers and Weil 2013). Both studies were based on early-life stage
exposure of fish embryos. Kwok et al. (2012) report the effects of
various forms of nanosilver on Oryzias latipes (Japanese
medaka) after 21 days exposure, whilst Schäfers and Weil (2013) report
the effects of exposure to NM-300K standard nanosilver in Danio
rerio (zebra fish) after a 35 day OECD 210 early life test. Both
studies were conducted in freshwater media.
et al. (2012) exposed medaka embryos to two sizes of PVP coated
spherical nanoparticles with mean raw materials particle sizes of 21 ±
7 and 75 ± 21 nm, as well as citrate and gum arabic coated nanosilver
particles with mean particle raw materials sizes of 7 ± 11 and 6 ± 2
nm, respectively (gum arabic particle measurements are based on the
silver core of the particles). All forms of nanosilver were found to
aggregate/agglomerate in test systems, with aggregates/agglomerates of
PVP coated silver nanoparticles reported to exceed 1 µm in size after
48 hours within the test system. NOECs for survival after 21 days
exposure ranged from 150 µg/L for the larger PVP coated and citrate
coated nanosilver particles, 500 µg/L for the gum arabic coated silver
particles and 1,500 µg/L for the smallest PVP coated nanoparticles.
The equivalent NOEC for ionic silver (silver nitrate) exposure for 21
days was 15 µg/L, approximately 10 times more toxic than the forms of
nanosilver used in the study.
and Weil (2013) exposed zebrafish embryos to uncoated NM-300K
nanosilver in an OECD standard early life-stage toxicity test (OECD
210). NM-300K has a primary particle size of 15 nm (with 99% of
particles below 20 nm) and is widely used in the OECD Sponsorship
Programme for the testing of engineered nanomaterials. Test were
semi-static with seven day renewal periods for media. Aggregates of
50-60 nm were reported in test media and were considered stable
between media renewals. The test was initiated with fertilised eggs
and various endpoints were monitored during the test period including
hatching success, post-hatch success (survival), length, weight and
abnormal development. All test validity criteria were achieved and an
overall NOEC of 5.9 µg/L was reported (length and weight endpoints).
An EC10 of 41 µg/L was also reported for post-hatch survival. No
concurrent exposure with ionic silver was undertaken.
of the studies report effects at concentrations approaching the EC10
for chronic exposure to fish of 0.17 µg/L for ionic silver used in the
REACH CSR. The EC10 for ionic silver is currently approximately 30
times more sensitive than the most sensitive chronic fish toxicity
data for nanosilver, although the exposure duration of the study with
dissolved silver was significantly longer than the available studies
with nanosilver. As such, the hazard properties of ionic silver are
considered to adequately cover the potential hazard of nanosilver to
is currently insufficient information available to make any
conclusions regarding the influence of particle size, morphology or
coating on the long-term toxicity of nanosilver to fish.
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