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flammable gases
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP non compliant, guideline not known, information from published handbook, acceptable with restrictions
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The use of secondary sources of data is acceptable when they are based on a critical evaluation of peer-reviewed data and a consequent selection of a reliable and representative value for the property under investigation. The introduction to the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics states that data for physical constants have been taken from many sources, including both compilations and the primary literature. Where conflicts were found, the value deemed most reliable was chosen. Therefore, although the method used is not known, the values presented here are acceptable as they are from a reliable secondary source of phys chem. data.
GLP compliance:
not specified
no data reported
lower explosion limit
1.1 % (not further specified)
upper explosion limit
7.1 % (not further specified)

No further details provided

Interpretation of results:
highly flammable
Migrated information
The lower and upper explosion limits of toluene are 1.1-7.1% by volume in air.
Executive summary:

The lower and upper explosion limits of toluene are 1.1-7.1% by volume in air. No information on the test method used is available in the handbook. However, this information is taken from a peer reviewed handbook and is considered reliable and suitable for use as the key study for this endpoint.

Description of key information

Key value for chemical safety assessment


Additional information

Justification for classification or non-classification

The flammability of liquids is determined on basis of their flashpoint (in combination with their boiling point), their ability to emit flammable gases upon contact with water and their pyrophoricity. The molecular structure of toluene does not contain groups that indicate potential reactivity with water or pyrophoric properties and handling of the substance indicates that this is the case. Toluene has a flash point of 4.4°C and a boiling point is 110°C and therefore meets the criteria of Category 2 for flammability (flash point <23 °C and boiling point of >35 °C) under the CLP Regulations.