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Long-term toxicity to fish

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Description of key information

Key value for chemical safety assessment

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There are no guideline studies available which asses the test substance's chronic toxicity to fish. Thus, based on the structural and physico-chemical similarity as well as the results of the OECD Toolbox, the assessment of long-term toxicity on fish can be covered by the data available for phenol, chlorophenol, p-cresol and tert-butylphenol.

 

According to the OECD Toolbox, 4-hydroxyacetophenone falls in the non-specific (polar narcotic) categories of “Phenols” (US EPA New Chemical Category and ECOSAR) and “Phenols and Anilines” (OASIS MOA). Substances classified as polar narcotic are thought to act by a mechanism similar to the inert narcotic compounds, i. e. by perturbation of the cell membrane, but exhibit above baseline toxicity due to their hydrogen bond donor activity. The aquatic toxicity of polar narcotics typically depends on their lipophilicity and increases with the logKow. In the data summarised below, p-tert-butylphenol with the highest logKow, also exhibits the high toxicity.

 

Based on the data available for other para-substituted phenols (see below), 4-hydroxyacetophenone is expected to have long-term effects on both fish and daphnia. However, due to the significantly lower logKow, the toxicity is expected to be less than for p-tert-butylphenol. In order to confirm these expectations, a long-term study with Daphnia magna has been conducted which resulted in a NOEC of >= 1 mg/L (meas. conc.). An additional long-term fish test would, however, most probably not reveal any further information, relevant for the risk assessment. Therefore, and for the purpose of animal welfare, a chronic fish test has not been proposed.  

 

Substance

CAS-No.

Molecular weight (g/mol)

logKow

Water solubility (mg/L)

NOEC Fish (mg/L)

NOEC Daphnia (mg/L)

4-hydroxyacetophenone

99-93-4

136.1

1.35(a

10000

n.a.

n.a.

Phenol

108-95-2

94.1

1.45(b

70000

0.1(b

0.46(b

p-Cresol

106-44-5

108.1

1.94(c

21500

1.35(d

1.0(e

p-tert-Butylphenol

98-54-4

150.2

3.29(f

610000

0.1(g

0.73(f

p-Chlorophenol

106-48-9

128.6

2.39(h

n.a.

n.a.

0.19(i

n.a.: not available

a)      Hansch,C et al., 1995, secondary source SRC PhysProp Database

b)      EU Risk Assessment Report Phenol, 2006

c)      Hansch,C et al., 1995, secondary source ACS Professional Reference Book. American Chemical Society,,

d)      Barron MG and Adelman IR, 1984, Canad. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 41(1), 141-150

e)      Kuehn et al., 1989, Water Res. 23(4), 501-510

f)        OECD SIDS, 2000

g)      ECHA published IUCLID

h)      Hansch,C et al., 1995, secondary source KOWWIN v.1.67 Database

i)       The Official Bulletin of the Ministry of International Trade and,