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EC number: 265-057-8
CAS number: 64741-56-6
A complex residuum from the vacuum distillation of the residuum from atmospheric distillation of crude oil. It consists of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly greater than C34 and boiling above approximately 495°C (923°F).
Brief discussion of human data obtained from literature searches.
Bitumen human data statement for 1Q 2017 dossier updates
A number of studies evaluating acute and chronic lung irritation
and function in correlation with occupational exposure to bitumen fumes
are available. Effects on acute and (sub)chronic respiratory
inflammation and lung function in bitumen workers are reported(Hansen,
1991; Norseth 1991; Bergdahl 2004; Randem 2004; Tepper 2006; Ulvestad
2007; Ulvestad 2017)but because of co-exposure to a variety of other
chemicals (e.g. benzene, coal tar, tobacco) the symptoms could not be
attributed directly to fumes from bitumen. In addition, no consistent
association was observed between acute and chronic clinical effects on
lung function or respiratory irritation following exposure to bitumen
fumes in additional human studies (Gamble 1999;Watkins 2002;Burstyn
2003; Randem 2003;Breuer 2011; Marczynski 2011; Pesch 2011;
Raulf-Heimsoth 20011a, 2011b, 2011c; Rihs 2011; Spickenheuer 2011; Welge
2011). The qualitative evaluation of these epidemiology studies
support the current hazard assessment including classification and
labelling according to EU CLP of this compound.
Bergdahl IA, Toren K, Eriksson K,
Hedlund U, Nilsson T, Flodin R, Jarvholm B (2004) Increased mortality in
COPD among construction workers exposed to inorganic dust. The European
Respiratory Journal 23(3), 402-6.
Breuer D, Hahn J-U, Höber D, Emmel C,
Musanke U, Rühl R, Spickenheuer A, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Bramer R, Seidel A,
Schilling B, Heinze E, Kendzia B, Marczynski B, Welge P, Angerer J,
Brüning T, Pesch B (2011) Air sampling and determination of vapours and
aerosols of bitumen and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Human
Bitumen Study. Archives of Toxicology 85 (Suppl 1), S11–S20.
Burstyn I, Boffetta P, et al. (2003)
Estimating exposures in the asphalt industry for an international
epidemiological cohort study of cancer risk. American Journal of
Industrial Medicine 43(1), 3-17
Gamble JF, Nicolich MJ, Barone NJ,
Vincent WJ (1999) Exposure-response of asphalt fumes with changes in
pulmonary function and symptoms. Scandinavian Journal of Work,
Environment & Health 25(3), 186-206.
Hansen ES (1991) Mortality of mastic
asphalt workers. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Marczynski B, Raulf-Heimsoth M,
Spickenheuer A, Pesch B, Kendzia B, Mensing T, Engelhardt B, Lee E-H,
Schindler BK, Heinze E, Welge P, Bramer R, Angerer J, Breuer D,
Käfferlein HU, Brüning T (2011) DNA adducts and strand breaks in workers
exposed to vapours and aerosols of bitumen: associations between
exposure and effect. Archives of Toxicology 85 (Suppl 1), S53–S64.
Norseth T, Waage J, Dale I (1991) Acute
effects and exposure to organic compounds in road maintenance workers
exposed to asphalt. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 20(6),
Pesch B, Spickenheuer A, Kendzia B,
Schindler BK, Welge P, Marczynski B, Rihs H-P, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Angerer
J, Brüning T. (2011) Urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons in workers exposed to vapours and aerosols of bitumen.
Archives of Toxicology 85 (Suppl 1), S29–S39.
Randem BG, Langard S, Kongerud J, Dale
I, Burstyn I, Martinsen JI, Andersen A (2003) Mortality from
non-malignant diseases among male Norwegian asphalt workers. American
Journal of Industrial Medicine 43(1), 96-103.
Randem BG, Ulvestad B, Burstyn I,
Kongerud J (2004) Respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation in asphalt
workers. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 61(4), 367-369.
Raulf-Heimsoth M, Pesch B, Rühl R,
Brüning T (2011a)The Human
Bitumen Study: executive summary. Archives of Toxicology 85 (Suppl 1),
Raulf-Heimsoth M, Pesch, B, Kendzia B,
Spickenheuer A, Bramer R, Marczynski B, Merget R, Brüning T (2011b)Irritative
effects of vapours and aerosols of bitumen on the airways assessed by
non-invasive methods. Archives of Toxicology 85 (Suppl 1), S41–S52.
Raulf-Heimsoth M, Marczynski B,
Spickenheuer A, Pesch B, Welge P, Rühl R, Bramer R, Kendzia B, Heinze E,
Angerer J, Brüning T (2011c) Bitumen workers handling mastic versus
rolled asphalt in a tunnel: assessment of exposure and biomarkers of
irritation and genotoxicity. Archives of Toxicology 85 (Suppl 1),
Rihs H-P, Spickenheuer A, Heinze E,
Pesch B, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Angerer J, Brüning T (2011) Modulation of
urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites by enzyme
polymorphisms in workers of the German Human Bitumen Study. Archives of
Toxicology 85 (Suppl 1), S73–S79.
Spickenheuer A, Rühl R, Höber D,
Raulf-Heimsoth M, Marczynski B, Welge P, Breuer D, Gabriel S, Musanke U,
Rode P, Heinze E, Kendzia B, Bramer R, Knecht U, Hahn J-U, Brüning T,
Pesch B (2011) Levels and determinants of exposure to vapours and
aerosols of bitumen. Archives of Toxicology 85 (Suppl 1), S21–S28.
Tepper AL, Burr GA, Feng HA, Singal M,
Miller AK, Hanley KW, Olsen LD (2006) Acute symptoms associated with
asphalt fume exposure among road pavers. American Journal of Industrial
Medicine 49(9), 728-739.
Ulvestad B, Randem BG, Hetland S,
Sigurdardottir G, Johannessen E, Lyberg T (2007) Exposure, lung function
decline and systemic inflammatory response in asphalt workers.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health 33(2), 114-121.
Ulvestad B, Randem BG, Skare Ø, Aaløkken
TM, Myranek GK, Elihn K, Lund MB (2017) Lung function in asphalt pavers:
a longitudinal study. International Archives of Occupational and
Environmental Health, 90(1), 63-71.
Watkins DK, Chiazze L, Fryar CD,
Fayerweather W (2002) A case control study of lung cancer and
non-malignant respiratory diseases among employees in asphalt roofing
manufacturing and asphalt production. Journal of Occupational and
Environmental Medicine, 44, 551-8.
Welge P, Marczynski B, Raulf-Heimsoth M,
Spickenheuer A, Kendzia B, Heinze E, Angerer J, Käfferlein HU, Pesch B,
Brüning T (2011) Assessment of micronuclei in lymphocytes from workers
exposed to vapours and aerosols of bitumen. Archives of Toxicology 85
(Suppl 1), S65–S71.
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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