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Toxicological information

Developmental toxicity / teratogenicity

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2012-07 to 2013-04
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2012

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: OECD 422
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Remarks:
Bayerische Landesamt für Gesundheit und Lebensmittelsichereit, München,Germany
Limit test:
no

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Trisodium bis[3-hydroxy-4-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)azo]-7-nitronaphthalene-1-sulphonato(3-)]chromate(3-)
EC Number:
260-906-9
EC Name:
Trisodium bis[3-hydroxy-4-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)azo]-7-nitronaphthalene-1-sulphonato(3-)]chromate(3-)
Cas Number:
57693-14-8
Molecular formula:
C40H20CrN6O14S2.3Na
IUPAC Name:
trisodium bis[3-hydroxy-4-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)azo]-7-nitronaphthalene-1-sulphonato(3-)]chromate(3-)
Test material form:
solid: particulate/powder

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
Test System
Species/strain: Wistar rats, Crl: WI(Han) (Full Barrier)
Source: Charles River, 97633 Sulzfeld, Germany
Sex: male and female; the female animals were non-pregnant and nulliparous.
Age at the start of the treatment period: males: 9-10 weeks old, females: 9-10 weeks old.
Body weight at the allocation of the animals to the experimental groups: males: 240 - 276 g (mean: 257.33 g, ± 20% = 205.86 – 308.79 g); females: 164 - 195 g (mean: 176.48 g, ± 20% = 141.18 – 211.77 g)
The animals were derived from a controlled full-barrier maintained breeding system (SPF). According to Art. 9.2, No. 7 of the German Act on Animal Welfare the animals were bred for experimental purposes.

Housing and Feeding Conditions
- Full barrier in an air-conditioned room
- Temperature: 22 ± 3 °C
- Relative humidity: 55 ± 10 %
- Artificial light, sequence being 12 hours light, 12 hours dark
- Air change: 10 / hour
- Free access to Altromin 1324 maintenance diet for rats and mice (lot no. 0939)
- Free access to tap water, sulphur acidified to a pH of approximately 2.8 (drinking water, municipal residue control, microbiological controls at regular intervals)
- The animals were kept individually in IVC cages (except during the mating period when one female will be paired with one male), type III H, polysulphone cages on Altromin saw fibre bedding (lot no. 300512)
- Certificates of food, water and bedding are filed at BSL BIOSERVICE
- Adequate acclimatisation period (at least 5 days) under laboratory conditions

Preparation of the animals
Prior to the start of the treatment period a detailed clinical observation outside the home cage was made. Before the first administration all animals used for the study were weighed and assigned to the experimental groups with achieving a most homogenous variation in body weight throughout the groups of males and females.


Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
water
Details on exposure:
Preparation of test item formulation
The test item was weighed into a tarred plastic vial on a precision balance.
The dose formulations were prepared by adding the required volume of sterile water and further vortexing it for 2-3 minutes.
The vehicle was selected based on the test item’s characteristics (stability and homogeneity). The test item formulations were prepared freshly on each administration day before the administration procedure. The time of preparation and time of dosing was recorded for all dosing formulations.
The homogeneity was guaranteed by intensive stirring during application.
According to the results of the dose range finding study and in consultation with the sponsor, the doses are selected for the 3 dose groups (LD = low dose, MD = medium dose, HD = high dose) and 1 control group (C).
The animals were treated with test item formulation or vehicle on 7 days per week for a period of maximum 54 days, i.e. during 14 days of pre-mating and maximum 14 days of mating in both males and females, during the gestation period and up to post-natal day 3 in females. Males were dosed after the mating period until the minimum total dosing period of 28 days was completed.
The following doses were evaluated:
Group Dose [mg/kg bw]
C 0
LD 100
MD 300
HD 1000
The highest dose level was chosen with the aim of inducing toxic effects, but no death or severe suffering. Thereafter, a descending sequence of dose levels was selected with a view to demonstrate any dosage related response and NOAEL.
The animals in the control group were handled in an identical manner to the test group subjects and received the vehicle using the same dose volume.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Dose formulation analysis
Each dosing concentration was analyzed for nominal concentration. Stability and homogeneity of the test item in the vehicle was analyzed for the LD, MD and HD dosing formulation.
Samples for the nominal concentration verification were taken in study week 1 (first week of pre mating period), 3 (first week of mating), 5 (gestation) and 7 (gestation/lactation) of control and all treatment groups (16 samples in total).
Samples for homogeneity were taken from the top, middle and bottom of HD, MD, and LD preparation in study week 1 and 5 (18 samples in total).
All formulation samples were stored at -20 °C until the analysis. The samples were analyzed at BSL BIOSERVICE Scientific Laboratories GmbH. The procedure followed for the sample analysis was mentioned in phase plan (BSL phase study Nr. 122236).
Details on mating procedure:
- M/F ratio per cage: 1:1
- Proof of pregnancy: sperm in vaginal smear referred to as day 0 of pregnancy
Duration of treatment / exposure:
The animals were treated with test item formulation or vehicle on 7 days per week for a period of maximum 54 days, i.e. during 14 days of pre-mating and maximum 14 days of mating in both males and females, during the gestation period and up to post-natal day 3 in females. Males were dosed after the mating period until the minimum total dosing period of 28 days was completed.
Frequency of treatment:
daily
Doses / concentrationsopen allclose all
Dose / conc.:
100 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
300 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
80 animals (40 males and 40 females) were included in the study (10 male and 10 female animals per group).
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle

Examinations

Maternal examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: yes
- Time schedule: daily

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: yes
- Time schedule: daily

BODY WEIGHT: yes
- Time schedule for examinations:The body weight was recorded once before the assignment to the experimental groups, on the first day of administration and weekly during the treatment period as well as at the end of the study. During pregnancy, females were weighed on gestation days (GD) 0, 7, 14 and 20 and within 24 hours off parturition (day 0 post-partum) as well as day 4 post-partum along with pups.

FOOD CONSUMPTION: yes
Food consumption was measured weekly on the corresponding days of the body weight measurements after the beginning of the dose administration. Food consumption was not measured during the mating period in males and females and the post-mating period in males.

WATER CONSUMPTION: no


POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS: yes
Female animals were sacrificed on post-natal day 4 using an anaesthesia (ketamine/xylazin, 2:1, medistar Arzeneimittel, lot no: 00212, expiry date: 03/2014, Actavis, lot no: 146066, expiry date: 10/2014, Serumwerk, lot no: 00711, expiry date: 08/2013 and Narcoren®, Merial; lot no.: 221022; expiry date: 28/02/2015) was used.

Ovaries and uterine content:
- Number of corpora lutea: yes
- Number of implantations: yes
Statistics:
The findings of this study were evaluated in terms of the observed effects, the necropsy and the microscopic findings.
Parameters like body weight gain and food consumption were calculated for each animal as the difference in weight measured from one week to the next. The relative organ weights were calculated in relation to the body weight (measured at necropsy).
A statistical assessment of the results of the body weight, food consumption, parameters of haematology, blood coagulation and clinical biochemistry and absolute and relative organ weights were performed for each gender by comparing values of dosed with control animals of the main groups using a one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc Dunnett Test. These statistics were performed with GraphPad Prism 5.01 software (p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant).
Indices:
The duration of the gestation was recorded and was calculated from day 0 of the pregnancy.
Each litter was examined as soon as possible after delivery of the dam to establish the number and sex of pups, stillbirths, live births, runts and the presence of gross abnormalities.

Results and discussion

Results: maternal animals

Maternal developmental toxicity

Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects:yes. Remark: No effects

Details on maternal toxic effects:
Mortality
There was no mortality noted in treated and control groups during the study period.
Clinical Observations
There were clinical signs namely moving the bedding, salivation and piloerection noted occationally or intermittently on treated groups of male or female animals, which were assumed to be caused by local irritation. The clinical signs reddish nasal discharge, abnormal breathing, slightly reduced spontaneous activity, respiratory sound and diarrhea were observed transiently in few animals of male and female treated groups. These findings were considered not likely to be adverse.
Alopecia was noted in few isolated animals of LD or MD groups, which were considered incidental.

During the weekly detailed clinical observations, no significant changes or differences between the groups were found.

There were no ophthalmoscopic findings in any of the animals of this study.
Functional Observations
No relevant effects were observed in any of the parameters of the functional observation battery before and at the end of the treatment period. There were no biologically relevant differences in body temperature between the groups.

Body Weight Development
In both males and females, no treatment related changes were noted for body weight during the study period. The statistical evaluation of data revealed significant decrease in mean body weight of female MD group on lactation day 0 when compared to control. As there was no dose response pattern noted, this finding was not related to treatment.
There was slight decrease in body weight change in male HD group when compared to corresponding control during the study period. Slight decrease was also observed transiently in female HD group. However, these changes did not corroborate food intake. Hence, the changes were considered not likely to be related to treatment.

Food Consumption
In both males and females, no treatment related changes were noted for treated group when compared to control. The statistical evaluation of data revealed no significant changes between the treated and the corresponding control group.



Effect levels (maternal animals)

Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect level:
other: maternal toxicity
Remarks on result:
not determinable due to absence of adverse toxic effects

Results (fetuses)

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects: no effects

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects: no treatment-related changes were noted for the number of still births, number of runts, total number of pups born on PND 0 and number of male and female pups, sex ratio, live pups on PND 0 and PND 4; statistical evaluation of data revealed no significant differences between the values of treated and control groups.

Effect levels (fetuses)

Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Sex:
male/female
Remarks on result:
not determinable due to absence of adverse toxic effects

Fetal abnormalities

Abnormalities:
not specified

Overall developmental toxicity

Developmental effects observed:
not specified

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Repeated dose administration of the substance to the male (28-29 days) and female (up to 54 days) Wistar rats at dosages of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day revealed neither mortalities nor major findings of toxicological relevance in male and female animals.
Based on test findings, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for general and reproduction/developmental toxicity is considered to be 1000 mg/kg bw/day.
Executive summary:

Method

A study according to OECD guideline 422 to assess male and female fertility and embryofetal development was run with Wistar rats.

The test item was administered daily in graduated doses to 3 groups of test animals, one dose level per group for a treatment period of maximally 54 days for females and minimum of 28 days for males. A control group was present. Each of the 4 groups comprised 10 male and 10 female Wistar rats.

During the period of administration, the animals were observed each day for signs of toxicity. At the conclusion of the test, surviving animals were sacrificed and observed macroscopically.

Body weight and food consumption were measured weekly, except for food consumption measurements which were not taken during the mating period in female animals and the mating and post-mating period in male animals.

Haematological and clinical biochemistry evaluations were performed on blood samples collected at terminal sacrifice from 5 males and 5 randomly selected females from each group. Urinalysis was performed on samples collected at terminal sacrifice from 5 randomly selected males from each group.

Functional observations including sensory reactivity to different stimuli, grip strength, motor activity assessments and other behaviour observations were performed in the week before the treatment and at the end of the study on five randomly selected males and females.

After 14 days of treatment to both male and female animals were mated (1:1) for a maximum of 14 days. From subsequent morning onwards the vaginal smears of females were checked to confirm the evidence of mating. After the confirmation of the mating, females were separated and housed individually. Each litter was examined as soon as possible after delivery of the dam to establish the number and sex of pups, stillbirths, live births, runts and the presence of gross abnormalities. Live pups were counted, sexed and litters weighed within 24 hours off parturition and on day 4 post-partum.

The males were sacrificed after completion of the mating period on days 29/30 and the females along with their pups were sacrificed on post natal day 4. Non-pregnant females were sacrificed on day 26 from the day of confirmed mating.

Pups sacrificed on postnatalday 4 and those found dead (1 pup from animal 48), were carefully examined for gross external abnormalities.

 

A full histopathological evaluation of the tissues was performed on high dose and control animals. Organs showing gross alterations were also examined histopathologically. The examinations of kidney, lung, thymus and mesenteric lymph node were also evaluated from five randomly selected males and females of the low and medium dose due to changes in high dose group.

The following doses were evaluated:

Control:                       0        mg/kg body weight

Low Dose:                   100     mg/kg body weight

Medium Dose:             300     mg/kg body weight

High Dose:                  1000   mg/kg body weight

The test item formulation was prepared freshly on each day of administration. The test item was suspended in sterile water and administered daily during 14 days of pre-mating and during mating period in both male and female animals, during the gestation period and up to post-natal day 3 in females. Males were dosed for 28 days. Non pregnant females and females with no evidence of mating were treated until day 25 after confirmed mating or from the end of mating period. Dose volumes were adjusted individually based on weekly body weight measurements. The administration volume was 5 ml/kg body weight.

Results

No mortality occurred in the control or any of the dose groups during the treatment period of this study.

The clinical signs reddish nasal discharge, abnormal breathing, slightly reduced spontaneous activity and diarrhea were observed transiently in few animals of HD group, which were considered not likely to be adverse. During the weekly detailed clinical observation, no significant changes or differences between the groups were found. There were no ophthalmoscopic findings in any of the animals of this study.

No relevant effects were observed in any of the parameters of the functional observation battery before and at the end of the treatment period. There were no biologically relevant differences in body temperature between the groups.

In both males and females, no treatment related changes were considered for body weight, body weight change and food consumption in treated groups when compared to control.

No treatment-related changes were noted for number of still births, number of runts, total number of pups born on PND 0 and number of male and female pups, sex ratio, live pups on PND 0 and PND 4.

There was statistically significant difference noted for group mean litter weight in HD group. As there was no marked difference noted biologically, this change was considered not likely to be adverse.

No treatment related changes were noted for precoital interval and duration of gestation in treated groups when compared to control. All pregnancies resulted in normal births.

No treatment related changes were noted for number of corpora lutea, number of implantation sites, number of live pups born on PND 0 and percentage of pre- and post implantation loss. 

There were no treatment related changes noted for copulation index (%), fertility index (%) and delivery index (%) in treated groups when compared to the corresponding control group.

No treatment related changes were noted on survival of the pups from PND 0 to PND 4 in any treated group when compared with controls.

No treatment-related gross external findings were observed in any of the treated groups.

There were no treatment related changes noted for haematological parameters. However, there was increase noted for mean Neutrophil values of female treated groups. But the values being within the historical control range, the changes were considered not likely to be adverse.

There were no changes noted for coagulation parameters (prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time) in treated groups when compared to control.

There were changes noted in cholesterol value of male HD group and creatinine and alkaline phosphatase value in female HD group which was attributed to histological changes noted in kidney and the histological changes in kidney were due to test item deposition. The changes in cholesterol, creatinine and alkaline phosphatase in male or female animals were considered not likely to be adverse.

The urinalysis performed in male animals revealed no test- item related effect in any of the treatment groups compared to the control group.

At terminal sacrifice, two females of MD group (Nos. 62 and 65) and one female of HD group (No. 73) were found to be non-gravid after successful copulation.

Two males of MD group showed yellow(ish) spot(s) on the epididymis, corresponding histologically to spermatic granuloma. As this finding was not dose-related and may be seen spontaneously in male rats of this strain and age, it was not considered to be test item-related.

 

Dark or black discoloration of one or several organs was noted in a dose-related manner in 7/10 females of MD group and in 10/10 males and 9/10 females of HD group. Whereas in MD group organs concerned were most often kidney or lymph node (mesenteric or mandibular), in HD group these were some or all of the following: kidney, testis, lymph nodes, female reproductive organs, liver, thymus, adrenal gland, salivary glands. In addition, in HD group, blackish content was noted in the gastrointestinal tract in one single male rat. In one female animal of MD group (No. 68), lung was not collapsed and had black spots. These color changes were considered to be due to the test item. Other macroscopic organ findings noted were few and not dose-related and therefore considered incidental.

 

Lower thymus weights recorded in females were related to an increased incidence and severity of atrophy/regression of the thymus was noted in females of HD group, but the difference to controls was small. Hence, the changes were considered not to be adverse.

 

Histopathologically, a minimal amount of brown pigment in interstitial macrophages of the testis was seen in a dose-related manner in MD and HD groups and was considered to represent test item deposition in macrophages. No test item-related changes were noted in the other male or in the female reproductive organs.

In the kidney, minimal amounts of brown pigment in tubuloepithelial cells of the cortex were observed in the majority of animals of HD group and in one single male of MD group.

 

In the mesenteric lymph node, minimal numbers of foamy/brown pigmented macrophages were seen in a dose-related manner in MD and HD groups. In addition, the incidence of sinus histiocytosis was higher in HD group than controls. Altogether, these changes were considered to be due to test item deposition.

 

In the lung, multifocal minor numbers of brown pigmented macrophages were observed in single animals of the MD and HD groups. Under the conditions of this study, it could not be elucidated further whether this change was due to local presence of test item formulation in the lung (via partial gavaging error or regurgitation) or due to systemic circulation of test item-laden macrophages.

Corroborating lower thymus weights recorded, an increased incidence and severity of atrophy/ regression of the thymus was noted in females of HD group, but the difference to controls being small the changes were considered not to be adverse.

Concentration analysis of formulation samples was determined in study week 1, 3, 5, and 7 for all dose groups. The mean recoveries observed in LD, MD and HD groups were 86.3 %, 91.7 % and 82.5 % of the nominal concentration, respectively.

Homogeneity of formulation samples was determined in study week 1 and 5 for LD, MD and HD dose groups. The mean recovery observed for LD dose group was between 98.6 and 99.6 % of the nominal value, for MD dose group between 93.7 and 99.5 % and for HD dose group between 80.5 and 94.1 %. The coefficients of variation of the different sampling locations (top, middle, bottom) were between 0.9 and 3.3% in LD dose group, between 1.8 and 2.1 % in MD dose group and between 0.7 and 1.4 % in HD dose group.