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EC number: 200-315-5
CAS number: 57-13-6
The study from Kelliher et al. 2007
investigated the respiration of natural soil from grassland after urea
application with a rate of 2358 mg/kg. The test was performed similar to
the OECD 217 with the deviation that no glucose was added and that the
test duration was 24 instead of 28 days. Within the first 6 days after
urea addition, the respiration was significantly increased when compared
to the untreated control. After 6 days, the respiration rate of the
samples which received urea were not statistically significant to the
Based on the results of this study, the
NOAEC is >= 2358 mg urea/kg.
as determined in the study similar to the OECD 217 was > 2358 mg urea/kg
The most relevant study for this
endpoint is from (Kelliher et al, 2007). The NOEC as determined in the
study similar to the OECD 217 was > 2358 mg urea/kg dw.
This information demonstrate that
terrestrial microorganisms are less sensitive to urea than earthworms
and therefore the terrestrial plants are less relevant for the risk
assessment of urea than earthworms.
Further long-term data are available
from Zhang et al. (2008) and Zhang et al. (2019). These studies were
performed without adjusting the pH. The studies resulted in a NOAEC of
457 mg urea/kg dw Zhang et al. (2008) and > 33 mg/kg dw. Both studies
have limited relevance for the risk assessment of the effect of urea on
microorganisms since it deviated from good agricultural practice in
regard to the pH adjustment which resulted in a drop of the pH-value
with increasing application amount.
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