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EC number: 200-315-5
CAS number: 57-13-6
Reliable and relevant acute and long-term
data are available for all three trophic levels, i.e., algae,
invertebrates and fish.
Overall, it was demonstrated that urea is
not toxic within the normal concentrations outlined in the guidance
documents, i.e., all EC50 and EC10 values are > 100 mg urea/L. Hence,
there is no rik for the aquatic organisms. However, for the derivation
of robust PNECs, the availabe information was assessed.
The most relevant acute data are as follows:
Algae: 72-h ErC50: 24541.9 mg a.s./L
Invertebrates: The 24 hour EC50 for
urea in Daphnia was reported to be >10000 mg/l; urea is not acutely
toxic to daphnids. The 24 hour LC50values for freshwater
snail eggs, juveniles and adults were reported to be 14241 mg/l, 18255
mg/l and 22998 mg/l. Following 48 hour exposure, the LC50value
for adults was calculated to be 13477 mg/l. In another study, the
24 hour LC50values for eggs, juvenile and adult snails were
reported to be 13532 mg/l, 24504 mg/l and 26024 mg/l, respectively.
Following 48 hours exposure, the LC50value for adults was
calculated to be 21412 mg/l. It is concluded that, under normal
laboratory conditions, urea displays low molluscicidal activity. The 4
hour LC50in mosquito (Aedes aegypti) larvae is
reported to be 60000 mg/l.
Fish: 96 -h LC50 Danio rerio FET: 21060 mg
urea/L (result from and inter-laboratory ring test). Further results for
various fish species is available.
The most relevant long-term data are as
Algae: 72-h ErC10: 6895.8
Daphnids: Daphnia magna reproduction 21-d
EC10 140.7 mg/L
Fish EC10 Oreochromis mossambicus: 7247 mg
Hence, invertebrates are the most sensitive
group of organisms. The EC10 -value of 140 mg/L will be used for the
Studies with various amphibian species
indicate that amphibians are also not sensitive to urea.
Urea is the primary excretion product of
fish embryos. In juvenile and adult fish about 10 to 20% of the nitrogen
is excreted as urea. Further information on the role of urea in the
N-cycle of fish is provided in the section "Biotransformation and
Since urea is a natural N-cycle product in
fish and especially in embryos and juvenile fish, it is highly unlikely
that urea will act as endocrine disruptor.
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