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EC number: 215-231-4
CAS number: 1314-35-8
No data on bioaccumulation or levels of tungsten trioxide in aquatic
organisms are available. However, bioaccumulation/bioconcentration of
tungsten metal and inorganic tungsten compounds such as tungsten
trioxide is not expected to occur in aquatic or sediment species, as the
bioavailability of tungstate (the bioavailable form) from tungsten
compounds is expected to be low in the water column due to stream and
river sediment adsorption and low potential for leaching from soils.
Furthermore, any uptake mediated by transport proteins would be expected
to be internally regulated. The absence of methylated tungsten species
also supports the claim that bioaccumulation is not expected to be of
concern for tungsten and inorganic tungsten compounds.
No data on the behavior of tungsten trioxide in the environment are
available. Bioconcentration data for tungsten metal and sodium tungstate
are presented as read-across source substances in this section. The
soluble species released are expected to be similar for each of the
compounds, and are thus expected to behave similarly in the environment.
However, the amount of soluble species resulting from tungsten metal and
sodium tungstate is different, with sodium tungstate being much more
soluble. Therefore, data for sodium tungstate and tungsten metal are
expected to adequately capture the range of bioavailability of tungsten
trioxide in the environment. For more details, refer to the read-across
category approach description in the Category section of this IUCLID
submission or Annex 3 of the CSR.
Relatively low bioaccumulation of tungsten is observed in sunflower
leaves at soil concentrations of 3900 mg W/kg soil, with calculated
concentration factors plateauing at approximately 0.05 (Johnson et al,
2009). Tungsten concentrations factors calculated for ryegrass were
higher and ranged from 56.1-0.202 (Strigul et al, 2005). However, it
should be noted that, in this study, background levels of tungsten in
the collected soils used for testing were not determined prior to
testing. Tungsten concentrations measured in earthworm tissue ranged
from 1.52-193.2 mg/kg wet weight in soils with tungsten concentrations
of 10-10000 mg/kg soil, respectively (non-aged soil) (Strigul et al,
2005). Additionally, tungsten concentrations of 10 and 10000 mg/kg soil
yielded earthworm tissue concentrations of 3.45 and 25.9 mg/kg wet
weight, respectively (Strigul et al, 2005). Using these paired
concentration data, the BCFs for earthworms in non-aged soils ranged
0.152-0.019 and BCFs for aged soils ranged from 0.345 - 0.00259.
Tungsten concentrations measured in earthworm tissue in another study
with soil spiked with sodium tungstate (Inouye et al., 2006) ranged from
2.9 - 41.3 mg/kg wet weight in soils with tungsten concentrations of <2
– 4643 mg/kg soil, respectively. These data would indicate concentration
factors ranging from 1.45 - 0.008, respectively, with only the lowest
tungsten concentration resulting in a BCF of > 1. Therefore, tungsten
compounds such as tungsten trioxide are not expected to bioaccumulate in
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