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Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria

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Endpoint:
toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1997
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Remarks:
GLP test according to protocol. No analyses were performed, but from a stability test it is knwn that the test substance is stable in algae medium.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 201 (Alga, Growth Inhibition Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
The NaHCO3 concentration was increased from 50 to 150 mg/L. The temperature was out of range for a few hours at the beginning of the test. The ammoniumchloride was replaced by sodiumnitrate as sole source of nitrogen to increase the stability of the test
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (previous names: Raphidocelis subcapitata, Selenastrum capricornutum)
Details on test organisms:
- Source/supplier: CCAP, Cumbria, UK
- Laboratory culture: yes
- Method of cultivation: batch cultures
- Pretreatment: no
- Controls: yes
- Initial cell concentration: 1 x 10^4 cells/ml 
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Test temperature:
21.1 - 24.0 °C
pH:
7.8 - 9.3
Nominal and measured concentrations:
- Nominal concentrations: 0.2, 0.6, 1.8, 5.4, 16.1 mg/l
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 100 ml Erlenmeyer flasks
- Aeration: no
- Initial cells density: 1x10E4
- Control end cells density: 3.2x10E6
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 3
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 6


GROWTH MEDIUM
- Standard medium used: yes, OECD medium, with 150 mg/l NaHCO3 instead of 50 mg/l and the ammoniumchloride was replaced by sodiumnitrate as sole source of nitrogen to increase the stability of the test compound during the test periode.



TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: see growth medium
- Culture medium different from test medium: No


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: No
- Photoperiod: continuous light
- Light intensity and quality: spectral range of 400 to 700 nm by using 30 W fluorescent lamps of the type ‘universal white’, 103.81 and
104.70 µmol/m²/s


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) :
- Determination of cell concentrations: spectrophotometer
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: both biomass and growth rate
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
0.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: both biomass and growth rate
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
4.5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
biomass
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
13 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Results with reference substance (positive control):
- Substance: potassium chromate
- Concentrations: 0.1-0.25-0.63-1.56-3.91 mg/l 
- Results: EbC50 = 0.75 and ErC50 is 2.0 mg/l 
Reported statistics and error estimates:
NOEC and LOEC were determined using William's test (Williams, D.A., Biometrics 28, pp. 519-531 (1972)) ). Confidence limits were based on Fieller's theorem (Zerbe, G.O., Statistician, Vol 32 (3).pp. 103-105)
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Validity criteria were fulfilled.
The EbC50 and ErC50 (0-96 h) of Tosylchloramide sodium are 4.5 (95% CL 3.9-5.2) and 13 (0 95% CL 11.0-16.), respectively. The LOEC determined from the results for Tosylchloramide sodium is 0.6 mg/L. The NOEC derived from the results for Chloramine-T is 0.2 mg/L.
Executive summary:

In order to predict effects of chemicals in an aquatic environment, the toxicity to algae was assessed. The algal toxicity was determined in the Algal Growth Inhibition test in accordance with slightly modified OECD Test Guidelines (which is basically identical to the EEC protocol and IS0 guidelines), and in compliance with the OECD Principles of Good Laboratory Practice.

The toxicity of Tosylchloramide sodium to exponentially growing Selenastrurn capricornutum was determined over an exposure period of 96 hours. The test was conducted in a mineral salts medium at temperatures ranging from 21.1 to 24.0°C in an illuminated orbital incubator. The pH in the test media varied from 7.8 to 9.3.

The definitive test was carried out at nominal concentrations of 0.2, 0.6, 5.4 and 16.1 mg/l Chloramine-T. The EbC50 and ErC50 (0-96 h) of Tosylchloramide sodium are 4.5 mg/l (3.9 -5.2 95% confidence limits) and 13 mg/l (11.0-16.0 95% confidence limits), respectively. The LOEC determined from the results for Tosylchloramide sodium is 0.6 mg/l. The NOEC derived from the results for Tosylchloramide sodium is 0.2 mg/l.

The definitive test is valid as shown by the EbC50 and ErC50 values of the reference compound potassium dichromate (0.75 and 2.0 mgll, respectively), the increase of the extinction of the control over 72 h by a factor of 74 and by a maximum deviation of the pH of 1.5 unit.

Endpoint:
toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
1990
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
No data on the test substance other than name. No details on measurement only EC50s are presented in the article. Due to lack of data a dose-response relationship cannot be determined. No dose-effect data given. Stability of the test substance in the test medium is not provided. Test substance is not monitored during the study. High intial cell number. For meeting the quality criteria only the pH of the controls was measured and not the pH of the test vessels. Authors conclude that the criteria was met because the pH at the beginning of the test was 8.1 and after 48 h it was 9.6. No data for test vessels.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: DIN 38 412, Part 9 (draft standard)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
slight modification
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Desmodesmus subspicatus (previous name: Scenedesmus subspicatus)
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
72 h
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.2 mg/L
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
0.58 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
0.31 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
biomass

The cell concentration in control cultures increased at least by a factor  of 16 within 3 days that validity criterion has been fulfilled. The  concentration of the test substance was not determined therefore it  cannot be assessed if the test substance concentration remains within 80%  of the nominal concentration. A dose response relationship is not shown  due to insufficient reporting of data. Only the ErC50 and EbC50 are given  of 0.58 and 0.31 mg/L, respectively.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The ErC50 is 0.58 mg/L
The NOEC (based on growth rate) is 0.2 mg/L

Description of key information

In order to predict effects of chemicals in an aquatic environment, the toxicity to algae was assessed. The algal toxicity was determined in the Algal Growth Inhibition test in accordance with slightly modified OECD Test Guidelines (which is basically identical to the EEC protocol and IS0 guidelines), and in compliance with the OECD Principles of Good Laboratory Practice. The toxicity of Tosylchloramide sodium to exponentially growing Selenastrurn capricornutum was determined over an exposure period of 96 hours. The test was conducted in a mineral salts medium at temperatures ranging from 21.1 to 24.0°C in an illuminated orbital incubator. The pH in the test media varied from 7.8 to 9.3. The definitive test was carried out at nominal concentrations of 0.2, 0.6, 5.4 and 16.1 mg/l Tosylchloramide sodium. The EbC50 and ErC50 (0-96 h) of Tosylchloramide sodium are 4.5 mg/l (3.9 -5.2 95% confidence limits) and 13 mg/l (11.0-16.0 95% confidence limits), respectively. The LOEC determined from the results for Tosylchloramide sodium is 0.6 mg/l. The NOEC derived from the results for Tosylchloramide sodium is 0.2 mg/l. The definitive test is valid as shown by the EbC50 and ErC50 values of the reference compound potassium dichromate (0.75 and 2.0 mg/l, respectively), the increase of the extinction of the control over 72 h by a factor of 74 and by a maximum deviation of the pH of 1.5 unit.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50 for freshwater algae:
13 mg/L
EC10 or NOEC for freshwater algae:
3 mg/L

Additional information

The key value is derived from Kroon (1997) based on the reliability, duration and quality of the study. Although not calculated, it can be derived from the study (fig 4) that the ErC10 value could be between 3 - 4 mg/L (worst case 3 mg/L).