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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1988
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The test is described with little detail and therefore it cannot be judged if the test complies with current guidelines.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
study was performed according to methods described by the committee on Methods for Toxicity Tests with Aquatic Organisms (1975), ASTM Committee E-35 on Pesticides (1980) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (1986). E729-80
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other: Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)
Test type:
other: static and flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
soft, hard and very hard
Test temperature:
7, 12, 17C
pH:
6.5- 9.5
Nominal and measured concentrations:
12, 36 & 60 mg/L

LC50 96h Soft water at 12 °C under static conditions:
- Rainbow trout: 2.8 (2.41-326) mg/L 
- Fathead minnow: 7.30 (6.71-7.94) mg/L
- Channel catfish: 3.75 (3.30-4.26) mg/L

Reconstituted water 12 °C:                                          
- Rainbow trout; flow through  

Experiment 1: 30.0 (27.6-32.6) mg/l

Experiment 2: 23.0 (20.2-26.2) mg/l           
- Rainbow trout; static               
Experiment 1: 4.60 (4.14-5.11) mg/l   

Experiment 2: 7.00(6.44 -7.61) mg/l

The 96h LC50 of Chloramine-T was determined in three species of fish. For  two of these species (rainbow trout and channel catfish) different  circumstances were tested: differences in temperature, pH, water  hardness, fish loading, fecal material content and feed concentration. 
It was found that the chemical was more toxic in warm water. Temperature  affected the time of the response rather then the ultimate toxicity of  Chloramine-T; the 96h LC50's did not differ significantly. Only a slight  effect was seen for changes in water hardness. Decrease in pH  significantly increased the toxicity of Chloramine-T. The 96h LC50's were  1.89 or 1.75 mg/L at pH 6.5 and 10.8 or 12.3 mg/L at pH 9.5 for rainbow  trout or channel catfish, respectively.      
Rainbow trout exposed to Chloramine-T under flow through conditions was  much more resistant than fish exposed under static conditions. It was  assumed that more chlorine is released under static conditions. 
Fish loading did not affect the toxicity of Chloramine-T.  Increased  concentrations of fish feed and fecal material reduced the toxicity of  Chloramine-T. The increase of oxidizable materials in the test solutions  will reduce the effective concentration.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The lowest 96h-LC50 found was in soft water at 12 °C under static conditions for Rainbow trout: 2.8 (2.41-326) mg/L
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1993
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
Despite the lack of details and the fact that it is not possible to  evaluate the validity criteria according to the current guidelines, the  study was performed according to procedure from the Committee on Methods  for Toxicity Tests with Aquatic organisms (1975) and ASTM Committee E-35  on pesticides (1980) and then can be estimated to be valid for the  purpose of evaluating sensitivity of juvenile striped bass to  chloramine-T. The results presented enable to evaluate chloramine-T toxicity to  juvenile striped bass, showing that this species is not the most  sensitive one (lower LC50 were obtained with rainbow trout). Influence of water parameters on toxicity can also be evaluated and the  results are in good agreement with results obtained elsewhere (Cross 1973  and Bills 1988)
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: static toxicity test performed under procedures described by the Committee on Methods for Toxicity Tests with Aquatic organisms (1975) and ASTM Committee E-35 on pesticides (1980)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
10 juvenile (1g) striped bass were exposed to chloramine-T in  glass jar containing 15 L of oxygen saturated test water. In addition influence of pH, hardness and temperature on the toxicity of  chloramine-T was evaluated.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
No information
Test organisms (species):
Morone saxatilis
Details on test organisms:
- Species/strain: Striped bass (Morone saxatilis)
- Source: Welaka (Florida) national fish hatchery Genoa (Wisconsin) national fish hatchery
- Wild caught: No
- Age/size: Juvenile (average weight 1 g)
- Kind of food: No information
- Amount of food: No information
- Feeding frequency: No information
- Pretreatment: Acclimation period of 24 hr to the water chemistry before exposure
Test type:
static
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
Soft water: 40-48 mg/L CaCO3 (used for the standard toxicity test)
Hard water: 160-180 mg/L CaCO3
Very hard water: 280-320 mg/L CaCO3
Test temperature:
12 °C
17 and 22°C were also tested to evaluate influence of the temperature on toxicity.
pH:
7.5 (for standard tests)
6.5, 8.2, 8.5 and 9.5 used in various tests performed to evaluate influence of the water characteristics on the toxicity
Actual pH values during test not reported
Dissolved oxygen:
Saturation level. Actual values during test not reported
Nominal and measured concentrations:
No information
Details on test conditions:
- Volume of test vessels: 15 L
- Volume/animal: 1.5L
- Number of animals/vessel: 10
- Number of vessels/ concentration: No information
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
6.3 - 6.65 mg/L
Reported statistics and error estimates:
No information

Influence of water characteristics (temperature, hardness and pH) on sensitivity of juvenile striped bass to chloramine-T was evaluated with fish coming from the location.

Temperature (°C)

Hardness (mg/L CaCO3)

pH

LC50 (mg/L) and 95% C.I.

24h

96h

12

Soft (40-48)

7.5

14.4

11.7-17.7

6.30

5.77-6.88

17

Soft (40-48)

7.5

14.5

11.8-17.8

9.70

8.70-10.8

22

Soft (40-48)

7.5

9.20

8.23-10.3

8.20

7.18-9.36

12

Very soft (10-13)

8.2

40.0

30.7-52.2

20.0

16.0-25.0

12

Soft (40-48)

8.2

73.0

68.5-77.8

27.8

22.7-34.1

12

Hard (160-180)

8.2

64.0

58.4-70.2

27.6

22.6-33.8

12

Very hard (280-320)

8.2

57.0

53.3-61.0

27.5

22.5-33.6

12

Soft (40-48)

6.5

4.90

4.48 -5.35

2.8

2.42-3.24

12

Soft (40-48)

8.5

>80.0

31.5

27.2-36.4

12

Soft (40-48)

9.5

>80.0

52.0

47.9-56.5

Results show that water hardness does not influence chloramine-T toxicity to juvenile striped bass, but toxicity increases with decreasing pH.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
Despite the lack of details and the fact that it is not possible to evaluate the validity criteria according to the current guidelines, the study was performed according to procedure from the Committee on Methods for Toxicity Tests with Aquatic organisms (1975) and ASTM Committee E-35 on pesticides (1980) and then can be estimated to be valid for the purpose of evaluating sensitivity of juvenile striped bass to Tosylchloramide sodium.
The results presented enable to evaluate Tosylchloramide sodium toxicity to juvenile striped bass, showing that this specie is not the most sensitive one (lower LC50 were obtained with rainbow trout).
Influence of water parameters on toxicity can also be evaluated and the results are in good agreement with results obtained elsewhere (Cross 1973 and Bills 1988).
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
1981
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Only a summary of the test results is available. Therefore validity cannot be assessed.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: NEN 6504, which is fully comparable to OECD 203
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Poecilia reticulata
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
12 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
31 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Basis for effect:
mortality
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
other information
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
According to the Alabaster and Abram method (1965)
Alabaster J.S, Abram F.S.H, 1965, Estimating the toxicity of pesticides to fish, Pestic. Abstr., sect C 11, 91-97

Tests with 2 different fish species were performed:
1 - 10 harlequin fish were placed in 500 ml flasks and exposed to serial chloramine-T dilution. The test solutions were replaced automatically with freshly prepared dilution at a rate of 100 ml each 10 min. Number of surviving fish was recorded at intervals.
2 - 10 roach fish (8-10 cm length, 1-2 year) were placed in 40 L aquaria and exposed to chloramine-T under constant flow conditions with a replacement time of 160 min. Number of surviving fish was recorded.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
other: Harlequin fish (Rasbora heteromorpha) and Roach (Rutilus rutilus)
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
30 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: at neutral pH in soft water and 20 °C

Mortality data is not reported, only the 24 hr, 48 hr and 1 week LC5 and LC50 are reported at various pH in soft water at 20ºC for R. heteromorpha.

Test results show that chloramine-T toxicity to harlequin fish is less in  hard than soft water and toxicity is less in alkaline than acidic waters.

pH 6.5: 18/35 (soft/hard water)
pH 7.7: 70/82 (soft/hard water)

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
Influence of pH and water hardness on Tosylchloramide sodium toxicity toward harlequin fish was evaluated. The results demonstrate that Tosylchloramide sodium is more toxic in soft water than in hard water and is more toxic in acidic than in alkaline water.

Description of key information

Multiple studies with multiple fish species are available for the substance and also for its first transformation product p-TSA.

LC50 values ranging 2.8 - 82 mg/L for Chloramine T, the lowest value for rainbow trout.

For p-TSA data have been included which indicate p-TSA has a lower toxicity to fish than Chloramide T.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information