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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Sep 07-09, 2004
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method C.2 (Acute Toxicity for Daphnia)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: all concentrations tested
- Sampling method: -
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Reconstituted water according to ELENDT (1990):
Macro nutrients (mg/L):
CaCI2 x 7 H20 293.80
MgSO4 x 7 H20 123.30
NaHCO3 64.80
KCI 5.80
Na2SiO3 x 9H20 10.00
NaNO3 0.27
KH2PO4 0.14
K2HPO4 0.18

Trace elements (mg/L):
B 0.5000
Fe 0.2000
Mn 0.1000
Li, Rb and Sr 0.0500
Mo 0.0250
Br 0.0125
Cu and Zn 0.0063
Co and I 0.0025
Se 0.0010
V 0.0003

Macro nutrients (mg/L):
Na2EDTA x 2H20 2.50

Vitamins (µg/L):
Thiamine 75.00
B12 1.00
Biotin 0.75


After preparation, the reconstituded water was aerated for 24 hours.

- Hardness: about 14° dH (about 250 mg/L CaCO3)
- pH: 7.9 ± 0.3, after an aeration for 24 hours.



References:

ELENDT, B.-P. Selenium deficiency in Crustacea. An ultrastructural approach to antennal damage in Daphnia magna Straus.
Protoplasma 154, 25-33, 1990
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Daphnia magna (Straus)
- Strain: Straus
- Source: in house
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): not older than 24 hours
- Feeding during test: yes
- Food type: suspension of fresh water algae
- Amount: sufficient
- Frequency: once a week

Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
14 ° dH (about 250 mg/L CaCO3)
Test temperature:
20-21 °C
pH:
7.8- 8.0
Dissolved oxygen:
> 85 %
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal: 0.00, 2.00, 4.40, 9.68, 21.30, and 46.85 mg/L
measured: 0, 0.03, 0.09, 0.25, 0.67, 1.52, mg/L
Details on test conditions:
-- Preparation
The test medium (reconstituted water and test material) was freshly prepared. Therefore, the test material was solved in the vehicle, reconstituted water. The test media were changed after 24 hours.

-- Administration
At the start of the experimental phase, 5 Daphnia magna were placed into 10 ml of reconstituted water (control group) or test medium (test material groups). The Daphnia magna were not fed, and the control medium and test medium were not aerated during the test. The test vessels were labeled to assure unique identification.
-- Replicates: 4
-- Concentrations: 5
-- Dose levels
Daphnia magna were exposed to the vehicle and to test material concentrations of nominal 2.00, 4.40, 9.68, 21.30, and 46.85 mg/L were used.
-- Observation schedule
The mobility was determined by visual control and recorded after 24 and 48 hours.
-- pH and oxygen concentration
The pH-values and dissolved oxygen concentration (O2) were measured in the control and all test material concentrations at the beginning and at the end of the experimental part.
-- Temperature
During the experimental part, the temperature was registered in a control vessel with an electronic thermometer containing a maximum and minimum memory display.
-- Archive statement
All raw data, specimens and the final report are stored in the archives of the test facility.
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium dichromate
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
0.78 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 0.64-0.94
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
0.27 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 0.22-0.34
Details on results:
C daphnia
imm/expos. imm/expos.
24h 48h
0.00 0/20 0/20
2.00 0/20 0/20
4.40 0/20 1/20
9.68 0/20 7/20
21.30 6/20 20/20
46.85 20/20 20/20
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The 48 hours analytical EC50 to Daphnia magna is 0.27 mg/L.
Executive summary:

Purpose

The purpose of this assay was to identify the aquatic toxicity potential of the test material in Daphnia magna to provide a rational basis for hazard estimation for the test item in aquatic environments.

Study design

For this purpose, young Daphnia magna were exposed to aqueous test material concentrations under defined conditions. There was a very poor recovery of the test material after 48 hours and a closed semistatic test system was chosen. The study comprised of four vessels per concentration containing five Daphnia magna, i.e., 20 Daphnia per concentration (per test medium group). The Daphnia were observed for immobilization up to 48 hours. Daphnia magna were exposed to the vehicle and to test material concentrations of nominal 2.00, 4.40, 9.68, 21.30, and 46.85 mg/L were used. The GLP study was performed according to OECD TG 202.

Results

Analytical controls were carried out. There was a poor recovery of the test material after 48 hours, and a closed semistatic test system was chosen. The test media were changed after 24 hours. The limit of quantification of the analytical method was 0.006 mg/L.

The analytically determined concentrations were about 1.5- 3.3 % of the nominal concentrations directly after preparation and even 1.5- 3.6% of the nominal concentrations after 24 hours. That means that the test material concentrations stayed in the same range.

The solubility of the test material in the test medium was very poor and a semistatic test system was chosen. So the nominal EC50 values had to be calculated with the mean analytical concentrations. Nominal and corresponding mean analytical concentrations with motility data are given in the following table.

Nominal concentration Immobilization immobilized / exposed

[mg/L]  24 hours  48 hours 
0.00 0/20 0/20 
2.00 0/20  0/20 
4.40 0/20 1/20
9.68  0/20  7/20
21.30 6/20 20/20 
46.68 20/20  20/20 

For the test material the following EC50 values for Daphnia magna were determined:

24 h EC50 = 0.78 mg/L (0.64 - 0.94 mg/L)

48 h EC50 = 0.27 mg/L (0.22 - 0.34 mg/L)

Conclusions

The 48 hours analytical EC50 to Daphnia magna is 0.27 mg/L.

Description of key information

The informtion for this endpoint study record was obtained from an experimental study. The OECD GLP criteria were met and the methods applied are fully compliant with OECD TG 202.

The 48 hours analytical EC50 to Daphnia magna is 0.27 mg/L.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
0.27 mg/L

Additional information