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EC number: 265-191-7
CAS number: 64742-88-7
A complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained from the distillation of crude oil or natural gasoline. It consists predominantly of saturated hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C9 through C12 and boiling in the range of approximately 140°C to 220°C (284°F to 428°F).
Animal studies demonstrate that kerosine was found to be irritating to rabbit skin (similar to OECD 404). The degree of irritancy is substance-, dose- and exposure-time dependent.Kerosine was found to be non-irritating to rabbit eyes when exposed to 0.1 mL of test substance (OECD 405).
demonstrate that kerosine may act as a skin irritant. The degree of
irritancy is substance-, dose- and exposure-time dependent. The
kerosines and jet fuels range from essentially non-irritating after 4
hours of semi-occlusive exposure to severely irritating after 24 hours
of occluded exposure. Symptoms vary strongly and range from very faint
erythema to severe irritation in humans and from epidermal changes (e.
g., hyperkeratosis) to necrosis and ulceration of the epidermis in
animals. The mechanisms of the irritation and the following inflammatory
reaction have been studied in further detail, showing that fuel may
induce the production and release of proinflammatory factors such as
considered irritating to the skin, but are not considered eye irritants.
In a guideline key
study conducted according to GLP and in accordance with current
guidelines (Shell, 1991a), young adult New Zealand White rabbits (3 per
sex) were dermally exposed (semi-occlusive coverage) to 0.5 mL of
undiluted odourless kerosine, for 4 hours. Animals were observed for
seven days after exposure. Irritation
was scored based on the Draize method (1959). The mean erythema score
from 24 to 72 hours was 0.17/4 while the mean edema score from 24 to 72
hours was 0/4.
In another key study
(ARCO, 1986d), young adult rabbits (6 females) were dermally exposed
(occlusive coverage) to 0.5 mL of undiluted kerosine/heating oil for 24
hours on both intact and abraded skin sites. Each
of the test sites was evaluated for skin responses for 9 days
post-exposure, and was scored using the Draize scale. The mean erythema
score from 24 to 72 hours was 3.46/4 while the mean edema score from 24
to 72 hours was 2.33/4. While
this protocol deviates from current guidelines that state exposure
should be semi-occlusive over 4 hours, and to intact skin only, this
study is included as key to show the irritating nature of kerosine
studies are provided on straight run kerosine, odourless kerosine,
hydrocracked kerosine, hydrodesulfurised kerosine, Jet Fuel A, Jet Fuel
A1, JP-5, and Cherry Point Jet Fuel A (ARCO, 1992k; ARCO, 1992l; ARCO,
1992m; Shell, 1991b; Shell, 1991c; Shell, 1991d; ARCO, 1986e; ARCO,
1986f; ARCO, 1986g; API, 1985a; API, 1982; API, 1980a). Most
of the studies are valid in their methodology, but they differ from the
current OECD guidelines in that animals were exposed under occluded
conditions for 24 hours instead of semi-occluded conditions for 4 hours. Considering
the conditions of the test, results must be interpreted carefully for
the purposes of classification and labelling. The
mean scores for erythema and edema have been assessed against the
deviations, and provided the test would be conducted under standard
conditions, the overall weight of evidence indicates that kerosines are
irritating to skin. Kerosines
are classified as irritating to the skin according to E byEU
CLP Regulation (EC No. 1272/2008).
A number of
well-controlled (GLP) animal experiments performed on a variety of
kerosines indicate that none of the kerosines and jet fuels tested were
more than slightly irritating to the eyes. In addition, a number of
short reports on eye irritation studies on JP-5 and JP-8 show no eye
irritation whatsoever in rabbits (6 unwashed eyes; 3 washed eyes): all
scores 0.0 for up to 7 days (end of the study). None
of the hazard assessments of kerosine and jet fuel constituents have
resulted in classification for eye irritation.
In the key study
selected for primary eye irritation (ARCO, 1992n), 0.1mL of undiluted
thermocracked kerosine was instilled into the conjunctival sac of the
right eye of three female young adult New Zealand White rabbits, and
observed through 72 hours. Irritation was scored according to the Draize
method (1959). There was no evidence of damage to the cornea or iris for
all animals over all scoring periods. Mild conjunctivae indicators such
as redness, chemosis, and discharge were evident at the one hour scoring
interval, but not at any of the other scoring intervals. Fluorescein
staining scores were zero for all study animals over all scoring periods.
The average irritation
score was 0.0 for the cornea, iris and conjunctivae.
Based on the evidence,
kerosine is not an eye irritant.
In additional eye
irritation supporting studies (ARCO, 1992o; ARCO, 1992p; ARCO, 1991a;
ARCO, 1986h; ARCO, 1986i; ARCO, 1986j; ARCO, 1986k; API, 1985a; API,
1982; API, 1980a), rabbits were exposed to kerosines and observed for
irritation. The studies did not result in irritation according to the
mean cornea, iris or conjunctivae scores.
on the overall
weight of evidence of skin irritation scores, kerosines are classified
as irritating to the skin as defined
by EU CLP Regulation (EC No. 1272/2008). They
are classified as Skin Irritant Category 2 (H315), irritating to the
on a lack of corneal, iridial, and conjunctival irritation, kerosines do
not meet the criteria for classification as an eye irritant as defined
CLP Regulation (EC No. 1272/2008).
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