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Several studies have been conducted on a wide range of petroleum substances including gas oils to assess acute toxicity of these substances to fish, invertebrates and algae. Using water accommodated fractions (WAFs) to obtain measurable results on these substances it was observed that toxicity varied amongst different trophic levels with invertebrates as the most sensitive. The lowest LL50 recorded was 6.2 mg/l in a test conducted with Daphnia magna over a 48h period.