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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
from 9 July 1979
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
no analytical monitoring was carried out
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: US EPA 1979
Deviations:
not applicable
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: all

- Sampling method: concentrations were determined on days 0, 2, 4, 7, 9, and 11.

- Sample storage conditions before analysis: not reported
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION

- Method: direct weights of the test substance, corrected for active acid, were added directly to the test vessels.
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM

- Common name: rainbow trout

- Source: fishery caled Creek hatchery in Lewisotn, Montana, USA.

- Length at study initiation (length definition, mean, range and SD): intial mean standard length 34.3 mm

- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): initial mean weight of 0.57g

- Method of breeding: not reported


- Feeding during test

- Food type: commerical fish food Rangen's

- Amount: 3% body weight

- Frequency: daily


ACCLIMATION

- Acclimation period: 14 days

- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): similar conditions to test: holding tanks on 16 h daylight period.

- Type and amount of food: commerical fish food Rangen's, 3% body weight

- Feeding frequency: daily

- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): not reported
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
14 d
Hardness:
255 ppm as CacO3 in the dilution water
pH:
control: 8.1-8.6
low concentration: 7.6-8.4 (new solution) 8.3-8.6 (old solution)
high concentration: 5.8-6.6 (new solution) 8.4-8.5 (old solution)

The pH increased during the Friday to Monday water renewal periods. It is thought by the authors of the report that this is due to the aeration put in place on day 6.
Dissolved oxygen:
control: 8.2-10 mg/l
low concentration: 8.8-9.5 (new solution), 8.5-8.9 (old solution)
high concentration: 9.2-10.5 (new solution), 9.0-9.2 (old solution)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: 0, 75, 140, 240, 420, 750 mg active acid/l
Measured concentrations: 0, 74, 137, 232, 408 and 703 mg active acid/l
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM

- Type (delete if not applicable): open

- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 40 L glass aquaria, filled to 30 L of test solution

- Aeration: aeration took place on days 6, 8, 10, 12, 13 and 14 by gently bubbling compressed air, when DO levels were approaching 40%.

- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): 72%, i.e. 22.5 L, were replaced on each Monday, Wednesday and Friday

- No. of organisms per vessel: 20

- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 1

- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 1


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS

- Source/preparation of dilution water: well water

- Metals: all <0.01 ppm, except Iron 0.012 ppm and Nickel 0.0157 ppm

- Pesticides:
- Alkalinity: 368 ppm as CacO3

- Conductivity: 50 uhmos/cm

- Culture medium different from test medium: no

- Intervals of water quality measurement: water quality parameters were measured on each renewal date (Mon, Wed, Fri) in low, medium and high concentrations.


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS

- Adjustment of pH: none reported

- Photoperiod: 16 h daylight

- Light intensity: not reported


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : behviour and mortality were observed daily.


TEST CONCENTRATIONS

- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 1.7 to 1.9

- Justification for using less concentrations than requested by guideline: n/a

- Range finding study: none reported
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
Antimycin A
Key result
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
440 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Remarks:
(active acid)
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: (350-560)
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
74 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
behaviour
Remarks:
loss of equilibrium
Key result
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
232 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
440 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Remarks:
acid
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
- Observations on body length and weight: weight measurements of surviving fish at the end of the study (in percentages of the control group mean weight): 74 mg/l 90%; 137 mg/l 90%; 232 mg/l 76% and 408 mg/l 74%.

- Other biological observations: although only 5% mortality was observed at 232 mg/l, all test fish at this concentrations exhibited loss of equilirbium within 30 minutes after beginning the test. All surviving test fish at this concentrations recovered from the apparent initial toxicant shock, and the same behavioural response was noted immediately following each solution change at 232 and 408 mg/l. The loss of equilibrium following solution changes was thought to be due to a pH effect, as initial pH levels decresed with increasing toxicant concentration.

- Mortality of control: <5%
Results with reference substance (positive control):
- Results with reference substance valid? yes
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Litchfiled and Wilcoxon methods

Table 1. Sumamry of mortalities during the 14 day exposure.

 Nominal concentration (mg/l)  Days of exposure
 1  3  14
 Control  0  0  0
 74  0  0  0
 137  0  0  0
 232  5  5  5
 408  40  40  40
 703  95  100  100

Table 2. Mean measured total phosphorous and Dequest 2051 concentrations.

 Nominal concentration (mg/l)     Mean   
 P  Dequest 2051
 Control  --  --
 75  19.3  74
 140  35.5  137
 240  60.2  232
 420  106  408
 750  183  703
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
however, the pH and DO were low at the high concentration
Conclusions:
A 72 h and 14 d LC50 value of 440 mg active acid/l have been determined for the effects of the test substance on the mortality of the freshwater fish Oncorhynchus mykiss (reported as Salmo gairdneri) based on arithmetic mean measured concentrations. A NOEC value of 232 mg active acid/L based on mortalities has also been reported in the same study.
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: US EPA 1979
Deviations:
not applicable
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
no range finding test and no analytical monitoring
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION

- Method: an appropriate amount of test substance was added to each vessel and dispersed

- Controls: sea water only
Test organisms (species):
Cyprinodon variegatus
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM

- Common name: sheepshead minnow

- Source: stocked ponds at Bionomics Marine Research Laboratory

- Length at study initiation (length definition, mean, range and SD): 15-20 mm

- Method of breeding: not reported

- Feeding during test: not fed


ACCLIMATION

- Acclimation period: min. 7 days

- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): not reported

- Type and amount of food: not reported

- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): <1% mortality
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Test temperature:
20 ± 1⁰C
pH:
control: 8.3 to 8.2; exposure concentrations: 6.1 to 7.1
Dissolved oxygen:
≥60%
Salinity:
25‰
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: Control, 1000, 1800, 3200, 5600 and 10 000 µl/l (ppm)
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM

- Test vessel: jars

- Type (delete if not applicable): open

- Material, size, fill volume: glass, 19 L which contained 15L of seawater

- Aeration: no

- No. of organisms per vessel: 10

- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 1

- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 1


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS

- Source/preparation of dilution water: natural, filtered (5 micrometers) sea water

- Intervals of water quality measurement: 24 hours


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS

- Adjustment of pH: none

- Photoperiod: not reported

- Light intensity: not reported


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : mortalities were recorded every 24 hours


TEST CONCENTRATIONS

- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 1.8 to 2

- Range finding study: not reported to have been conducted
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 3 200 - < 5 600 other: µl/l (ppm)
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 820 - < 1 430 other: µl/l (ppm)
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Remarks:
active acid
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
- Mortality of control: 0%
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50s were calculated by linear regression

Table 1. Summary of findings.

 Nominal concentration (u/l; ppm)  Mortality (%)
 24 h  48 h  96 h
 Control  0  0  0
 1000  0  0  0
 1800  0  0  0
 3200  0  0  0
 5600  100  100 100 
 10 000  100  100  100

Result expressed as nominal concentration. Properties of the test substance and evidence from other studies (where concentrations were measured) indicate that nominal and measured concentrations are likely to be in good agreement.

A 96 h LC50 value between 3200 and 5600 µl/l (ppm) of test substance has been determined. This is equivalent to 820-2430 µl/l (ppm) in terms of HMDTMP active acid. The specific gravity of the test substance is 1.23 therefore the results in terms of mg/l are:

HMDTMP-xK = 96 h LC50 >3900 and <6900 mg/l, where the middle point is 5400 mg/l

HMDMTP acid = 96 h LC50 >1000 and >3000 mg/l, where the middle point is 2000 mg/l

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
a 96 h LC50 value of >3900 <6900 mg/l of test substance, corresponding to >1000 and <3000 mg/l active acid, has been determined for the effects of the test substance on the mortality of the marine fish species Cyprinodon variegatus based on nominal concentrations.
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Justification for type of information:
See attachment for justification of read-across
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Key result
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
440 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Remarks:
active acid
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ABC 1979
Key result
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
232 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Remarks:
active acid
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: ABC 1979
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 820 - < 1 430 other: µl/L (ppm)
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Remarks:
active acid
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: EG&G 1976

Description of key information

14 d LC50 440 mg active acid/l, O. mykiss, reliability 2 (ABC 1979, read-across from HMDTMP acid)

96 h LC50 >1000 and <3000 mg active acid/l, C. variegatus, reliability 2 (EG&G 1976, read-across from HMDTMP xK)

Key value for chemical safety assessment

LC50 for freshwater fish:
440 mg/L
LC50 for marine water fish:
2 000 mg/L

Additional information

A 72 h and 14 d LC50 value of 440 mg/l have been determined for the effects HMDTMP acid (CAS 23605-74-5) on the mortality of the freshwater fish Oncorhynchus mykiss (reported as Salmo gairdneri) (ABC 1979) based on arithmetic mean measured concentrations. A 14 d NOEC value of 232 mg/l based on loss of equilibrium was also reported in the same study (ABC 1979). A 96 h LC50 value of >3900 and <6900 mg/l of test substance, corresponding to >1000 and <3000 mg/l active acid, has been determined for the effects of HMDTMP K pH 7, equivalent to the registered substance, on the mortality of the marine fish species Cyprinodon variegatus based on nominal concentrations (EG&G 1976). These studies have been selected as key on a worst case scenario basis.

A supporting study also indicates low short-term toxicity of HMDTMP K pH 7, equivalent to the registered substance, to fish, where a 96 h LC50 value of >2400 mg/l with the freshwater catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Monsanto 1976) has been reported.