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Administrative data

Link to relevant study record(s)

Description of key information

Short description of key information on bioaccumulation potential result: 
All cresol isomers are absorbed across the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract and through the intact skin. (Morinaga et al. 2004, WHO 1995).
Cresols are widely distributed throughout the body after uptake. Cresols are mainly conjugated with glucuronic acid and inorganic sulfate and excreted as conjugates with the urine. Minor pathways for p-cresol include hydroxylation of the benzene ring. In addition to urinary excretion, cresols are excreted in the bile, but most part undergo enterohepatic circulation. (WHO 1995).
p-cresol administered by gavage to male Wistar rats were detected in blood and distributed to the brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and spleen. The unconjugated p-cresol as well as the glucuronide and sulfate metabolites were eliminated from blood, brain, lung, muscle, liver, spleen, and kidneys for the most part within several hours (Morinaga, 2004).
For p-cresol, side-chain oxidation to p-hydroxy benzoic acid (Bray et al 1950) and, in vitro, oxidation to a reactive quinone methide intermediate was found in the rat liver slices (Thompson et al 1996).
In addition, p-Cresol is an endogenous product for protein breakdown in humans (WHO 1995)

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Bioaccumulation potential:
no bioaccumulation potential

Additional information

All cresol isomers are absorbed across the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract and through the intact skin. (Morinaga 2004, WHO 1995) Limited data indicate that cresols are widely distributed throughout the body after uptake. Cresols are mainly conjugated with glucuronic acid and inorganic sulfate and excreted as conjugates with the urine. Minor pathways for p-cresol include hydroxylation of the benzene ring. In addition to urinary excretion, cresols are excreted in the bile, but most part undergo enterohepatic circulation. (WHO 1995).

p-cresol administered by gavage to male Wistar rats were detected in blood and distributed to the brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and spleen. The unconjugated p-cresol as well as the glucuronide and sulfate metabolites were eliminated from blood, brain, lung, muscle, liver, spleen, and kidneys for the most part within several hours (Morinaga, 2004).

For p-cresol, side-chain oxidation to p-hydroxy benzoic acid (Bray et al 1950) and, in vitro, oxidation to a reactive quinone methide intermediate was found in the rat liver slices (Thompson et al 1996).

In addition, p-cresol is an endogenous product for protein breakdown in humans (WHO 1995).