Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Hazard for aquatic organisms

Freshwater

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC aqua (freshwater)
PNEC value:
0 mg/L
Assessment factor:
10
Extrapolation method:
assessment factor
PNEC freshwater (intermittent releases):
0.224 mg/L

Marine water

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC aqua (marine water)
PNEC value:
0 mg/L
Assessment factor:
10
Extrapolation method:
assessment factor

STP

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC STP
PNEC value:
0.72 mg/L
Assessment factor:
10
Extrapolation method:
assessment factor

Sediment (freshwater)

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC sediment (freshwater)
PNEC value:
1 mg/kg sediment dw
Assessment factor:
10
Extrapolation method:
assessment factor

Sediment (marine water)

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC sediment (marine water)
PNEC value:
1 mg/kg sediment dw
Assessment factor:
10
Extrapolation method:
assessment factor

Hazard for air

Air

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Hazard for terrestrial organisms

Soil

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC soil
PNEC value:
0.36 mg/kg soil dw
Assessment factor:
10
Extrapolation method:
assessment factor

Hazard for predators

Secondary poisoning

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC oral
PNEC value:
2.2 mg/kg food
Assessment factor:
90

Additional information

The substance distillates (coal tar), heavy oils (anthracene oil high (> 50 ppm) BaP, AOH) [CAS no. 90640-86-1] is a UVCB and consists of a complex and within limits variable combination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The substance is obtained by distillation from coal tar. Up to 95% of the total product distil over between 300 and 450°C. This distillation interval excludes low molecular aromatic hydrocarbons (1 and 2-ring aromatics) as well as largely polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons composed of 5 rings and above, depending on the respective boiling points of the individual aromatic substances.

Phenanthrene, anthracene (3-ring PAH), fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, and benz[a]anthracene (4-ring PAH) represent approx. 30 % of total AOH, each accounting for 3 to 10 %. The majority of other components of AOH fall within the molecular size range of these five substances.

A key component is phenanthrene (7 – 10 %). Fluoranthene and pyrene are present in similar amounts. The accumulated percentage of all substances that can analytically be identified is about 50 - 53 % (average ca. 51%), depending on individual AOH samples and analytical method used. The remainder of AOH is not structurally known. Identification was not possible applying standard analytical methods.

Due to its poor solubility in water, short-term aquatic toxicity tests, were performed using water-accommodated fractions. AOH as such or other closely structure-related tar oils used as surrogates did exhibit only low acute aquatic toxicity under standard test conditions in fish, daphnia and algae. But the component phenanthrene was demonstrated to show considerable long-term toxicity to a broad range of water, sediment, and terrestrial organisms (see preceding sections).

In analogy to the structure-related substance anthracene oil (low (< 50 ppm) BaP, AOL) [CAS no. 90640-80-5], the key component phenanthrene is considered to adequately represent the PAH-related environmental toxicity of AOH. It is one of the most abundant components in AOH. Therefore, phenanthrene is selected as marker substance to represent the environmental toxicity of AOH.

Environmental risk assessment is based on predicted no effect levels (PNECs) derived for the substance under consideration. As phenanthrene is established as marker substance for AOH, PNECs are deduced employing environmental toxicity data of phenanthrene. Subsequently, the PNECs derived for phenanthrene are adjusted to AOH taking into account the percentage of phenanthrene (maximum 10 %) in AOH and all identifiable substances (51 %). In practice, the PNEC for phenanthrene is lowered to a PNEC for AOH by multiplication of the phenanthrene-specific PNEC by a factor of 0.2 (10/51, rounded).

Basic PNECs are derived according to ECHA guidance documents.

Conclusion on classification

The acute toxicity values obtained from the three trophic levels indicate that anthracene oil may exert weak to moderate acute toxicity to aquatic life. The consistent findings of EL/LL50 values above 10 mg/L strongly support classification as harmful to environment

  • according to Directive (EU) 67/548/EEC to be labelled withR52/53 (harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment) and
  • according toRegulation (EC) No 1272/2008 to be labelled with H412 (Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects), Category Aquatic Chronic 3, including the assumption that the chronic NOEC will be found below 1 mg//L.