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Administrative data

Workers - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
2.12 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
25
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
Value:
52.89 mg/m³
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

A NOAEL for the oral route needs to be converted for inhalation considering the differences between the routes and exposure between the test animals (rats) and workers and the general population.

Workers: As the NOAEL was obtained on rats using the oral route, it must be corrected for an inhalation exposure of workers, taking into account that workers are considered to be working 8h/d, with inhalative volumes for 8 h/d defined in the ECHA Guidance at 6.7 m3 for base level activity and 10m3 for light activity.

Corrected NOAEC(systemic-inhalation) = NOAEL(oral-rat)* (1 / sRV(rat)) * ((ABS(oral-rat) / ABS(inhalation-human))) * (sRV(human)/ wRV)

Where ABS = Absorption, sRV = standard Respiratory Volume, and wRV = worker Respiratory Volume. Absorptions by inhalation and oral route are not known, therefore it was considered that oral absorption in the rat was 50% less effective than the human absorption by inhalation in accordance with ECHA Guidance.

Corrected NOAEC(systemic-inhalation) = NOAEL(oral-rat)* (1 / sRV(rat)) * ((ABS(oral-rat) / ABS(inhalation-human))) * (sRV(human)/ wRV)

Corrected NOAEC(systemic-inhalation) = NOAEL(oral-rat)* (1 / sRV(rat)) * 0.5 * (sRV(human)/ wRV)

Corrected NOAEC(systemic-inhalation) = 60 mg/kg bw * (1 / 0.38 m3/kg) * 0.5 * (6.7 m3/ 10 m3)

Corrected NOAEC(systemic-inhalation) = 52.89 mg/m3

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
2
Justification:
Subchronic to chronic exposure
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

Workers - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.6 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
100
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
60 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

In accordance with ECHA Guidance, in order to derive DNEL for the dermal route for systemic effects from an EOGRTS by the oral route, a conversion must be made in order to take into account the differences between the routes.

Corrected NOAEL(systemic-dermal) = NOAEL(oral-rat)* ((ABS(oral-rat) / ABS(dermal-rat)))

Absorptions by dermal and oral routes are not known. On the assumption that, in general, dermal absorption will not be higher than oral absorption, no default factor should be introduced when performing oral-to-dermal extrapolation.

Corrected NOAEL(systemic-dermal) = NOAEL(oral-rat)* ((ABS(dermal-rat) / ABS(oral-human)))

Corrected NOAEL(systemic-dermal) = NOAEL(oral-rat)* 1

Corrected NOAEL(systemic-dermal) = 60 mg/kg bw/day * 1

Corrected NOAEL(systemic-dermal) = 60 mg/kg bw/day 

 

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
2
Justification:
Subchronic to chronic
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
Rats to Humans
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
40 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
Dermal
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
50
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
2 000 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

LD0 derived from the acute dermal toxicity study has been considered as equivalent to a NOAEL. No systemic or local effects were observed during the acute dermal toxicity study performed on rats. In order to derive DNELs for the dermal route from an acute dermal toxicity study, no conversion is required for the systemic exposure.

 

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
Rats to Humans
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
low hazard (no threshold derived)
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
low hazard (no threshold derived)

Workers - Hazard for the eyes

Local effects

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Additional information - workers

General Population - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.52 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
50
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
Value:
26.09 mg/m³
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

As the NOAEL was obtained on rats using the oral route, it must be corrected for an inhalation exposure of the general population, taking into account that the general population is considered as being exposed 24 h/d. A sRV(rat) of 1.15 m3/kg is used in order to consider this 24 h/d exposure.

Corrected NOAEC(systemic-inhalation) = NOAEL(oral-rat)* (1 / sRV(rat)) * ((ABS(oral-rat) / ABS(inhalation-human)))

Corrected NOAEC(systemic-inhalation) = NOAEL(oral-rat)* (1 / sRV(rat)) * 0.5

Corrected NOAEC(systemic-inhalation) = 60 mg/kg bw * (1 / 1.15 m3/kg) * 0.5

Corrected NOAEC(systemic-inhalation) = 26.09 mg/m3

 

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
2
Justification:
Subchronic to chronic exposure
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

General Population - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.3 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
200
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
60 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

In accordance with ECHA Guidance, in order to derive DNEL for the dermal route for systemic effects from an EOGRTS by the oral route, a conversion must be made in order to take into account the differences between the routes.

Corrected NOAEL(systemic-dermal) = NOAEL(oral-rat)* ((ABS(oral-rat) / ABS(dermal-rat)))

Absorptions by dermal and oral routes are not known. On the assumption that, in general, dermal absorption will not be higher than oral absorption, no default factor should be introduced when performing oral-to-dermal extrapolation.

Corrected NOAEL(systemic-dermal) = NOAEL(oral-rat)* ((ABS(dermal-rat) / ABS(oral-human)))

Corrected NOAEL(systemic-dermal) = NOAEL(oral-rat)* 1

Corrected NOAEL(systemic-dermal) = 60 mg/kg bw/day * 1

Corrected NOAEL(systemic-dermal) = 60 mg/kg bw/day 

 

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
2
Justification:
Subchronic to chronic
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
Rats to Humans
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
20 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
Dermal
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
100
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
2 000 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

LD0 derived from the acute dermal toxicity study has been considered as equivalent to a NOAEL. No systemic or local effects were observed during the acute dermal toxicity study performed on rats. In order to derive DNELs for the dermal route from an acute dermal toxicity study, no conversion is required for the systemic exposure.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
Rats to Humans
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
low hazard (no threshold derived)
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
low hazard (no threshold derived)

General Population - Hazard via oral route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.3 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
200
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
60 mg/kg bw/day
AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
2
Justification:
Subchronic to chronic exposure
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
Rats to Humans
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
1.25 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
100
DNEL extrapolated from long term DNEL
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
125 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

Adverse systemic effects were observed during the key study performed at up to 2,000 mg/kg bw and it is therefore not possible to derive a LD0. It is proposed to use for the calculation the value obtained during the reliable Combined Repeated Dose & Reproduction Toxicity study as its duration (subacute) is the closest to an acute exposure.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
Rats to Humans
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance

General Population - Hazard for the eyes

Local effects

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Additional information - General Population

There is limited exposure of the substance as such to the general public.