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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
11 January 2011 - 02 February 2011
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method C.2 (Acute Toxicity for Daphnia)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
ISO 6341 (Water quality - Determination of the Inhibition of the Mobility of Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea))
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
Stability in water: Not indicated
The water solubility at 20°C was determined to be 0.109 g/l using the flask method.
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Samples for possible analysis were taken from all test concentrations and the control according to the schedule below. In addition, the filter containing undissolved residue was kept for possible analysis.

Frequency: at t=0 h and t=48 h
Volume: 2 ml from the approximate centre of the test vessels
Storage: Samples were stored in a freezer until analysis.

At the end of the exposure period, the replicates were pooled at each concentration before sampling.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: Preparation of test solutions started with a loading rate of 100 mg/l applying a two-day period of magnetic stirring followed a filtration through a 0.45 µm membrane filter (rs55, Whatman) to remove undissolved material. The lower test concentrations were prepared by subsequent dilutions of the highest loading rate in test medium. The final test solutions were all clear and colourless.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Daphnia magna
- Strain: (Straus, 1820)
- Source: in-house
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): < 24 hours, from parental daphnids of more than two weeks old.
- Food type: no feeding
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
none
Post exposure observation period:
no
Hardness:
180 mg/l expresed as CaCO3
Test temperature:
19.9 - 20.9°C
pH:
7.8-8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
8.6-9.6
Salinity:
Not measured
Nominal and measured concentrations:
A 0.45 µm filtered solution prepared at a loading rate of 100% and 1.0, 2.2, 4.6, 10, 22 and 46% dilutions thereof.

Analysis of the samples taken at the start of the final test showed measured concentrations of 0.68, 1.5, 3.0, 6.7, 16, 32 and 70 mg/l in the 1.0, 2.2, 4.6, 10, 22, 46 and 100% of the filtrate, respectively. During the exposure period the measured concentration remained constant.
Details on test conditions:
Test vessels: 100 ml, all-glass
Medium: Adjusted ISO medium
Number of daphnids : 20 per concentration
Loading: 5 per vessel containing 80 ml of test solution
Light: 16 hours photoperiod daily
Feeding: No feeding
Aeration: No aeration of the test solutions.
Introduction of daphnids: Within 35 minutes after preparation of the test solutions.
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium dichromate
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
16 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 13-22
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
2.3 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 1.7-3.1
Details on results:

- Other biological observations: There was no immobilisation observed in the control during the test.

A clear dose-response curve was observed at the end of the test.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
- Results with reference substance valid? yes
- EC50/LC50: 0.57 mg/l with a 95% confidence interval between 0.52 and 0.66 mg/l
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The EC50-value was calculated at 24 and 48 hours of exposure from the probits of the percentages of affected daphnids and the logarithms of the corresponding test substance concentrations using the maximum likelihood estimation method (Finney, D.J., 1971: Probit analysis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 3rd edition).

Acute immobilisation of daphnids after 24 and 48 hours in the final test

Initial conc.

LIN10001:4,4’-Isopropylidenediphenol, propoxylated

(mg/l)

Vessel

number

 

Number

Daphnia

exposed

Response at 24 h

Response at 48 h

 

number

Total

%

 

number

Total

%

control

 A

 B

C

D

5

5

5

5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.68

 A

 B

C

D

5

5

5

5

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

5

1.5

 A

 B

C

D

5

5

5

5

0

0

0

0

0

1

3

2

1

35

3.0

 A

 B

C

D

5

5

5

5

0

0

0

0

0

2

4

4

3

65

6.7

 A

 B

C

D

5

5

5

5

0

2

1

0

15

5

4

5

4

90

16

 A

 B

C

D

5

5

5

5

2

3 (1)

0

1

30

5

5 (1)

5

4

95

32

 A

 B

C

D

5

5

5

5

5

4

4

4

85

5

5

5

5

100

70

 A

 B

C

D

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

100

5

5

5

5

100

( ) between brackets: number of daphnia observed trapped at the surface of the test solutions. These organisms were reimmersed into the respective solutions before recording of mobility.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The 48h-EC50 was 2.3 mg/L based on initially measured concentrations (95% confidence interval between 1.7 and 3.1 mg/l).
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
2007
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study was conducted by a GLP compliant laboratory using OECD Guideline 202.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Static method, with samples for analysis removed at time 0 hrs and 48 hrs
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Excess of 500 mg/L mixed and filtered to obtain solutions with maximum concentration of 64 mg/l. Serial dilutions were made.
After a range finder, test concentrations of 6.4, 12, 20, 36 and 64 mg/l were used.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
Also assessed at 24 hours
Hardness:
Theoretical hardness 250 mg/l as CaCO3
Test temperature:
21 - 22°C
pH:
8 - 8.2
Dissolved oxygen:
8.4 - 8.8 mg/l Oxygen
Salinity:
Fresh water
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The results of analysis gave a recovery of between 101 - 110% of nominal.
Results are given as nominal figures.
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
Potassium dichromate
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
32 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: Immobilisation and any other adverse reactions
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL = 22-50 mg/L

No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) = 6.4 mg/L

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Study considered valid. The 48 hour EC50 was found to be 32 mg/L.
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of the substance to aquatic invertebrates was determined in accordance with the OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals 202. Test concentrations of 6.4, 12, 20, 36 and 64 mg/L were used to assess the toxicity of the substance to Daphnia magna. The 48 hour EC50 was found to be 32 mg/L. The EC50 is 32 mg/L and NOEC 6.4 mg/L. 

Description of key information

The substance was shown to be toxic to aquatic invertebrates at the tested concentrations.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
2.3 mg/L

Additional information

Two studies were conducted to determine the toxicity of the substance to aquatic invertebrate. Both studies were conducted according to OECD Testing Guideline 202 on the species Daphnia magna. The key study on the read-across substance BPA 2PO found a 48 hour EC50 of 2.3 mg/l and the supporting study on BPA 5PO found a 48 hour EC50 of 32 mg/l. The toxicity to aquatic invertebrates appears to be higher for the lower propoxylation.