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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
21 September - 7 October 2004
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study, to GLP
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method C.2 (Acute Toxicity for Daphnia)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: 10, 18, 32, 56 and 100 mg/mL (nominal)
- Sampling method: During the final test, duplicate samples were taken for analysis from all test concentrations and the blank-control. 10 mL samples were taken from the approximate centre of the test vessel at the start (t = 0 hr) and end (t = 48 hr) of the test.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: Samples were stored at room temperature until transportation to the analysis laboratory.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The batch of platinum (2+) tetraammine (SP-4-1) diacetate consisted of white crystals which were completely soluble in test medium at all concentrations tested. Preparation of test solutions started with a stock solution of 100 mg/L. No special treatment other than careful mixing was necessary to completely dissolve the test substance in the test medium. The lower concentrations were prepared by subsequent dilutions of the stock in test medium. The final test solutions were all clear and colourless.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Daphnia magna
- Strain: Daphnia magna straus
- Source: in-house laboratory culture
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): less than 3 days
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): no data
- Length at study initiation (length definition, mean, range and SD): no data
- Valve height at study initiation, for shell deposition study (mean and range, SD): no data
- Peripheral shell growth removed prior to test initiation: no data
- Method of breeding: Newborn daphnids (approximately 250) were placed into 5 L of medium in an all-glass culture vessel. The cultures were renewed after 7 days of cultivation (half of the medium twice a week).
- Feeding during test: no
- Food type: not applicable
- Amount: not applicable
- Frequency: not applicable

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: no data
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): no data
- Type and amount of food: a suspension of freshwater algae
- Feeding frequency: daily
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): no

QUARANTINE (wild caught)
- Duration: not applicable
- Health/mortality: not applicable
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Hardness:
250 mg/L (expressed as CaCO3)
Test temperature:
20.7-21.1 deg C
pH:
7.9-8.0
Dissolved oxygen:
8.8 - 8.9 mg/L
Salinity:
Analytical grade salts were added to bidistilled water to obtain the following nominal concentrations:

CaCl2.2H2O 293.8 mg/L
MgSO4.7H2O 123.3 mg/L
NaHCO3 64.8 mg/L
KCl 5.8 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Analysis of the samples taken at the start and end of the final test showed that measured concentrations were in agreement with nominal (86-97%). The results are based on the nominal concentrations of the test substance.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 100 mL all-glass vessels
- Type (delete if not applicable): no data
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 80 mL of test medium
- Aeration: no
- Type of flow-through (e.g. peristaltic or proportional diluter): not applicable
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): not applicable
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): not applicable
- Biomass loading rate: no data

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: no
- Photoperiod: 16 hours
- Light intensity: no data

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : The immobility or mortality of the daphnids was determined by visual checks after 24 and 48 hours of exposure. Those animals not able to swim within 15 seconds after gentle agitation of the test vessel were considered to be immobile.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 1.8 (nominal concentrations were 10, 18, 32, 56 and 100 mg/L)
- Justification for using less concentrations than requested by guideline: not applicable
- Range finding study: yes
- Test concentrations: 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: yes
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium dichromate at 0.10, 0.18, 0.32, 0.56, 1.0 and 1.8 mg/L
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
86 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL = 80 - 98 mg/L
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
20 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL = 16 -29 mg/L
Details on results:
In the control and up to and including a concentration of 10 mg test substance/L, no immobility or mortality of the test animals or other signs of intoxication were determined during the entire test period of 48 hours (see Table 1). Therefore, the 48-hr NOEC of the test substance to Daphnia magna was determined to be 10 mg test substance/L.

During the 48-hour test period, the dissolved oxygen concentrations in the freshly prepared and aged test media ranged from 8.6 to 8.8 mg/L (recommended concentration is above 3 mg/L at the end of the test) and the pH ranged from 7.9 to 8.0 (recommended that pH should not vary by more than one unit over the course of the test) (Table 2). The test substance was completely soluble at all concentrations tested.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
- Results with reference substance valid? The reference test responses with K2Cr2O7 were within the expected ranges at the different concentrations. Hence the sensitivity of this batch of Daphnia magna was in agreement with historical data.
- Mortality: no data
- EC50/LC50: EC50 at 24 hr was 0.86 mg/L (95% CL = 0.80 - 0.97 mg/L), EC50 at 48 hr was 0.63 mg/L
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The 95% confidence interval for the EC50 values at 24 and 48 hr were 80 - 98 and 16 - 29 mg/L respectively.

Table 1: Influence of platinum (2 +) tetraammine diacetate on the mobility of Daphnia magna 

Concentration test substance (mg/L)  Vessel number     Number daphnia exposed     Response at 24 hr     Response at 48 hr   
 number  Total %  number  Total %
 Blank-control  A  5  0  0  0  0
   B  5  0    0  
   C  5  0    0  
   D  5  0    0  
 10  A  5  0  5  0  5
   B  5  1    1  
   C  5  0    0  
   D  5  0    0  
 18  A  5  1  5  0  25
   B  5  0    3  
   C  5  0    2  
   D  5  0    0  
 32  A  5  0  5  5  90
   B  5  0    5  
   C  5  0    5  
   D  5  1    3  
 56  A  5  0  0  5  100
   B  5  0    5  
   C  5  0    5  
   D  5  0    5  
 100  A  5  5  75  5  100
   B  5  3    5  
   C  5  4    5  
   D  5  3    5  

Table 2: pH and dissolved oxygen concentration (mg/L) in freshly prepared and aged test media

 Concentration test substance (mg/L)    Start (t = 0 hr)  End (t = 48 hr)   
 pH  O2  pH  O2
 Blank-control  7.9  8.8  7.9  8.8
 10  8.0  8.9  7.9  8.7
 18  8.0  8.8  7.9  8.7.
 32  8.0  8.8  7.9  8.6
 56  8.0  8.8  7.9  8.6
 100  8.0  8.8  7.9  8.6
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
In an OECD guideline study, to GLP, the 48-hr EC50 of platinum (2+) tetraammine diacetate to freshwater Daphnia magna was determined to be 20 mg/L (9.75 mg Pt/L).
Executive summary:

In an OECD guideline (TG 202) study, conducted according to GLP, the acute toxicity of platinum (2+) tetraammine diacetate to freshwater Daphnia magna was determined in a 48-hour static test. A full test was performed in parallel with a control, with nominal test substance concentrations of 10, 18, 32, 56 and 100 mg/L. The test substance did not induce immobilisation at up to 10 mg/L after 48 hours of exposure, hence the 48-hr NOEC was determined to be 10 mg/L. The 48-hr EC50 was 20 mg/L, equivalent to 9.75 mg Pt/L, with a 95%CL of between 16 and 29 mg/L.

Description of key information

In an OECD guideline study, to GLP, the 48-hr EC50 of tetraammineplatinum(II) diacetate to freshwater Daphnia magna was determined to be 20 mg/L (9.75 mg Pt/L) (Migchielsen, 2005).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

In an OECD guideline (TG 202) study, conducted according to GLP (Klimisch 1), the acute toxicity of tetraammineplatinum(II) diacetate to freshwater Daphnia magna was determined in a 48-hour static test. A full test was performed in parallel with a control, with nominal test substance concentrations of 10, 18, 32, 56 and 100 mg/L. The test substance did not induce immobilisation at up to 10 mg/L after 48 hours of exposure, and the 48-hr NOEC was determined to be 10 mg/L. The 48-hr EC50 was 20 mg/L, equivalent to 9.75 mg Pt/L, with a 95%CL of 16 - 29 mg/L (Migchielsen, 2005).