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EC number: 294-409-3
CAS number: 91722-09-7
Substance formed during processing of liquid steel or during production of iron castings. Consists primarily of fused silicates and trace elements as oxides as well as trace of alloying elements.
Ferrous slags are produced in steelworks as essential by-products of
iron and steel manufacturing and consist mainly of fused oxides of
aluminium, calcium, magnesium, iron, and silicon and thus. The
composition of the slags varies depending on the process step in which
they are produced. Overall, ferrous slags can be considered artificial
One of the main risks to the workers is the possible formation of fine
dust and inhalation exposure to ferrous slags in humans. The inhalation
of mineral particulates may occur during manufacture and processing.
Fine particles with a size of 1 – 5 μm have the potential for aerial
transport and inhalative exposure; they may enter the alveoli of the
The biological response of alveolar macrophages to inorganic dust is
known to depend on several factors. Based on the review of scientific
literature (Jochims 2012b) it can be stated that an increased number of
alveolar macrophages is generally considered an adaptive rather than a
toxic response of a biological system to inhaled inorganic particulates.
The extensive epidemiological data from a long-term cohort study
(Huvinen et al. 2013 and 2015) stated that the cancer (e.g. lung cancer,
prostate cancer, kidney cancer, nose and nasal cancer) risk for human by
inhalation exposure do not increase for occupational workers in the
ferro and stainless steel industry, where the ferrous slags are
produced, although exposed to inhalable dust during many years at work,
from 1967 -2004. The study covered over 8000 workers and was done by the
Outokumpu Oyj, Espoo, Finland, Finnish Cancer Registry, Institute for
Statistical and Epidemiological Cancer Research, Helsinki, Finland and
School of Health Sciences,
University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. The study result was compared
and analyzed to similar epidemiological studies in Norway (Axelsson G.
1980, Langård S. 1990), Sweden ( Axelsson G. 1980), France (Moulin JJ
1990 and 1993, more than 6 000 workers) and USA (Cornell RG.1984), and
found similar indications and common findings.
The findings and observations from the epidemiological studies are
reliable and comprehensive, which is reasonable to conclude that the
risk for carcinogenicity related to inhalation exposure by the ferrous
slags is not likely to occur.
Further, there is NO harmonized classification nor notified
classification for carcinogenicity for the components of the ferroslags,
according to the Annex VI in CLP and the C&L Inventory. The elements are
not considered as Known or presumed as carcinogenicity for human, and/or
suspected as such.
Based on reliable study results from the recent epidemiological studies
(Huvinen 2013 and 2015), carcinogenicity related to inhalation exposure
by the ferrous slags is not likely to occur.
Further, the components of the ferreslags are not considered as Known or
presumed as carcinogenicity for human, and/or suspected as such.
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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