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EC number: 294-409-3
CAS number: 91722-09-7
Substance formed during processing of liquid steel or during production of iron castings. Consists primarily of fused silicates and trace elements as oxides as well as trace of alloying elements.
Summary Microscopic Findings – Scheduled
Euthanasia Animals (Day 27/28)
Target Concentration (mg/L)
No. animals examined
Lung (No. examined)
Inflammatory cell infiltration, mononuclear cell
microscopic findings observed were considered incidental, of the nature
commonly observed in this strain and age of rat, and/or were of similar
incidence and severity in control and treated animals and, therefore,
were considered unrelated to inhalation administration of GGBS.
Microscopic Findings – Scheduled Euthanasia Animals (Day 120/121)
The increased incidence of minimal to mild inflammatory cell
infiltration composed of mononuclear cells could be considered as part
of background spontaneous pathology. Given the absence of significant
inflammation and tissue destruction and the lack of a clear dose related
effect macrophage aggregates and pigmented macrophages could be
considered as an adaptive process (Nikula et al., 2014).
Male and female rats were exposed to solid GGBS aerosol at
measured concentrations of 4.3, 9.5 or 24.9 µg/L for 6 hours per day for
5 days per week over 4 weeks (5 or 6 days in Week 4). Particle size
distribution measurements indicated that the test aerosols were within
the respirable range for rats and that the experiment could be
Elevated neutrophil counts seen in blood and BAL fluid and
elevated white blood cell and macrophages in BAL at 24mg/L
could be correlated with the microscopic findings (inflammatory cell
infiltration, macrophage aggregates, and pigmented macrophages) observed
in the lung.
As haematology, BAL fluid and microscopic changes were also
evident following 13 weeks of recovery (albeit to a lesser magnitude),
this suggests an adaptive response which was partially reversible at the
intermediate and high dose levels. Pigmented macrophages in the lung,
observed in the low dose group following recovery, were not accompanied
by any inflammatory findings in blood, BAL or other histopathology and
their presence was therefore considered to be adaptive and non-adverse.
No evidence of potential cell injury (lactate dehydrogenase),
effects on the alveolar-capillary barrier (total protein), lysosomal
instability (b-N-acetyl-glycosaminidase) were observed in the BAL fluid
which would indicate any toxicity to exposure to GGBS.
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