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EC number: 235-122-5
CAS number: 12070-10-9
Several relevant studies are available on bioconcentration (BCF)
or bioaccumulation (BAF) of vanadium in fish and invertebrates. However,
reliable studies (Klimisch 1 or 2) could not be identified (e.g.,
standard studies not available, V concentration in exposure medium was
not measured). The available data on fish and invertebrates based on
information on measured V concentration in whole organisms (or whole
soft tissue for bivalves) and nominal V concentration of the exposure
medium were used in a weight-of-evidence approach. Data are available
from laboratory tests with pentavalent (V2O5, NaVO3, NH4VO3, Na3VO4) or
tetravalent (VOCl2) V substances and monitoring studies measuring V
concentrations in aquatic organisms and the environment. Data are
available for 5 fish species (freshwater and marine), 1 freshwater
invertebrate species and 12 marine invertebrate species, including
bivalves, crustaceans and echinoderms. Whereas the majority of results
are based on organism’s wet weight, some BAF values for invertebrates
are reported based on dry weight and could thus not be included in the
weight-of-evidence approach. The median BCF or BAF values for fish and
invertebrates are 8.1 (range 0.5–412) and 12.1 (range 1.4–900) L/kg wet
weight, respectively. The overall median value is 12.0 L/kg wet weight.
Regarding the BAF values based on dry weight, a median BAF value of
7.5 L/kg (range: 5.8-438.9) can be derived for invertebrates.
Furthermore, biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) are
available from supporting studies (Klimisch 3) for 1 freshwater and 3
marine sediment species, which range from 0.005 to 0.23 with a median
BSAF of 0.03.
There is no indication for biomagnification of vanadium in marine
food chains (Miramand and Fowler, 1998). Experimental BCF values of fish
and invertebrates decrease with increasing vanadium concentrations of
the exposure medium (Holdway et al., 1983; Ray et al., 1990; Edel and
Sabbioni, 1993; Miramand et al., 1980; Miramand et al., 1981,
Jensen-Fontaine et al., 2014). Therefore, the highest BCF values are
considered not relevant for contaminated environments.
There is a large discrepancy (up to a factor 100) between BCF
values for fish and invertebrates derived during 21-day uptake
experiments with labelled 48V and BAF values based on analysis of total
V in the same organisms and seawater (Miramand et al., 1980, 1981, 1982
and 1992). The difference was explained by a slow uptake of V, not
reaching equilibrium within 21 days, or the contribution from food to
bioaccumulation of vanadium. However, a clear conclusions could not be
Due to the uncertainty of each individual study, it was decided to
apply all BCF and BAF data based on organism’s wet weight in a
weight-of-evidence approach. The 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles of the
BCF values according to the best-fitting distribution (log Weibull) are
1.3, 12.3 and 366 L/kg wet weight, respectively. The 50th percentile
(12.3 L/kg wet weight) was selected for the chemical safety assessment.
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